Hyperglycemia and epilepsy

It is believed that people with diabetes are more likely to suffer from epilepsy. Diabetes mellitus is often accompanied by convulsions that are confused with epilepsy. These phenomena differ in the nature of occurrence and duration of manifestation. The occurrence of epilepsy does not depend on the presence of diabetes. It is important to distinguish epilepsy from diabetic seizures in order to properly assist the patient.

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Causes of epilepsy

With diabetes mellitus, seizures occur, which can be mistaken for manifestations of epilepsy, but they are short and have a different nature.

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Epilepsy is a common pathology, but the causes of its development have not yet been studied. An epileptic seizure develops as a result of an abrupt malfunction of a specific area of ​​the brain. At this time, the connection between approximately 20 billion neurons is affected. Most often, the pathology develops on the background of a brain injury or tumor development. The occurrence of epilepsy does not depend on the presence of diabetes mellitus, but may be caused by burdened heredity. Children whose parents suffer from epilepsy are at high risk of developing this pathology.

What triggers an epileptic seizure?

Some factors or their combination can trigger the development of an epileptic seizure. The main of them are neurologists:

  • brain injury,
  • brain tumors of any nature
  • alcohol abuse
  • taking drugs
  • fetal abnormalities,
  • cerebral hemorrhage
  • infectious brain damage
  • uncontrolled intake of certain medications.

Diabetes mellitus is considered neither the primary nor the secondary cause of the pathology. If for some reason a diabetic has had a dramatic change in blood sugar levels, his temperature has risen, or the person is drinking himself, this may cause the development of epilepsy. At the same time, it is necessary to distinguish an epileptic seizure from diabetes seizures.

The difference between an epileptic seizure and convulsions

If a diabetic has dramatically increased or decreased blood sugar levels, the body temperature has increased, or the person has overheated in the sun, convulsions occur. This phenomenon differs from epilepsy in that it does not repeat for months, rarely occurs and lasts no more than 15 minutes. Accidental diabetic convulsions are an unpleasant phenomenon, which is characteristic of pathology and has nothing to do with epilepsy. If the diabetic's convulsions last for at least 15 minutes, the seizures occur frequently, and muscle spasms are regular, the patient is likely to have epilepsy. Confirmation of the diagnosis can serve as the development of seizures, regardless of the level of glucose in the blood.

Manifestations of the disease

A distinctive feature of an epileptic seizure in people with diabetes mellitus is the sudden onset without visible provoking factors. Sometimes a few days before the onset of the disease there is a sleep disturbance, irritability, loss of appetite. Depending on the severity of the pathology, the patient may faint and fall to the ground. Cramps shackle the whole body, twist the face. The patient does not react to anything, the reaction of the pupils to light is absent. The person beats, makes chaotic or monotonous movements. After an attack, the diabetic has no memories of what happened. A person complains of weakness and drowsiness.

Treatment of epilepsy in diabetes

A daily intake of omega-3 fatty acids reduces seizures by 33%. If a person with diabetes began to develop epileptic seizures, he is recommended to add mackerel, salmon, tuna, herring to the diet. There are fish oil preparations that can be purchased at the pharmacy. A suitable dose of fish oil is prescribed by the attending physician.

To eliminate epileptic seizures in the presence of diabetes, you need to conduct a detailed diagnosis. The doctor develops an individual treatment regimen, based on the results of diagnostics, the features of the course of the disease and the sugar level of the patient. For example, valproate prescribed to epileptics, for example, Depakine Chrono, should be used with caution by diabetics, since the drug can negatively affect the state of the pancreas. You can not independently cancel the prescribed treatment. It is necessary to control the level of glucose in the blood and to avoid sudden changes in this indicator to avoid seizures.

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Hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic attacks in diabetes mellitus: symptoms and methods of first aid

Diabetes mellitus is an incurable endocrine disorder that causes many complications and shortens life expectancy. Especially dangerous are sharp jumps in blood glucose levels.

About what are the symptoms of diabetic attack, what to do to improve well-being, tell the article.

Causes of seizures in diabetics

Hypoglycemia is understood to mean a condition that is characterized by a concentration of sugar in the blood below the established standard. Hyperglycemia is a sharp jump in glucose upwards.

Both options are dangerous to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to know the causes of seizures and avoid provoking factors.

Hyperglycemia

The main reason for high sugar in patients with diabetes is to miss taking sugar-lowering tablets or insulin injections. If the drug was stored incorrectly and deteriorated, then it may not work.

As a result, plasma glucose levels increase.

Among other causes of hyperglycemia it is worth mentioning:

  • eating food supersaturated with carbohydrates,
  • strong stress, excitement,
  • lack of motor activity
  • the presence of various pathologies, including infectious diseases,
  • binge eating.

Hypoglycemia

It provokes hypoglycemia in a person suffering from diabetes, overdose of the drug. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of some drugs may lead to a sharp decrease in blood sugar.

This happens when a patient develops kidney or liver failure. Changes in pharmacokinetics are also observed when the drug is injected to the wrong depth (for example, insulin does not get under the skin, but into the muscle).

Among other causes of hypoglycemia can be:

  • prolonged and significant exercise,
  • gastroparesis,
  • lactation period
  • abnormalities in the pituitary gland,
  • pregnancy,
  • adrenal pathology,
  • drinking alcohol
  • improper diet (if the patient has eaten an insufficient amount of carbohydrates to cover the insulin dose, the probability of an attack increases significantly),
  • uncontrolled intake of barbiturates, anticoagulants, antihistamines (these drugs inhibit glucose synthesis in the liver, which creates the basis for the development of a seizure of hypoglycemia),
  • long therapy with gamma globulin (part of the beta cells may recover and the need for insulin may drop)
  • malabsorption syndrome.

Hyperglycemic

The onset of hyperglycemia is characteristic of type 2 diabetics. A seizure is diagnosed when the blood glucose level exceeds 6.7 mmol / l.

High sugar concentrations can be manifested by the following symptoms:

  • frequent urination,
  • the smell of acetone from the mouth,
  • feeling of constant dryness in the mouth (drinking water does not quench thirst),
  • gagging,
  • cramping intense pain in the abdomen.

Hypoglycemic

The seizures of hypoglycemia often occur in type 1 diabetics. A complication develops when glucose drops below 3 mmol / l. The more sugar falls, the symptoms of an attack become more pronounced.

Signs of low glycemia:

  • tachycardia,
  • irritability,
  • tremor of limbs
  • disorder of consciousness
  • cold sweat,
  • strong appetite
  • convulsions
  • causeless alarm,
  • epilepsy,
  • weakness.

Diabetic coma as a consequence of sugar surges

A diabetic may cause coma due to a sharp jump in sugar. Under the diabetic coma understand a serious condition, which is characterized by acute disruption of the functioning of organs and systems, metabolism, irreversible changes.

Coma can be of different types:

  • lactic acidosis. It occurs due to anaerobic glycolysis with lactic acid synthesis. The main causes of this condition are sepsis, severe injuries, shock, significant blood loss. This type of coma is rare, but it represents the maximum threat to a person’s life,
  • hyperosmolar. It is characteristic for diabetics of the second type. The cause is increased urination. As a result of dehydration, blood thickens and serum glucose levels increase. Glycemia reaches 50-60 mmol / l,
  • ketoacidotic. The rise of glucose in the blood is explained by an increase in ketone bodies in the plasma. The meter shows the sugar concentration in the range from 13 to 20 mmol / l. In the urine is detected acetone
  • hypoglycemic. Developed with an overdose of hypoglycemic drugs, excessive physical activity, etc. The sugar level rises to 10-20 mmol / l.

In any case, coma is a serious danger to health and threatens the patient's life. The consequences can be:

What to do?

If a person has become very ill, the first thing to do is to measure the blood glucose level with a glucometer.

If there is no such device at home, then it is better to call an ambulance. If the device shows minor deviations from the norm, you can stabilize the sugar yourself, inject insulin, or by eating something sweet.

It is necessary to understand how to competently provide first aid, what preparations there are to improve one’s well-being, and whether folk methods help in reducing diabetic seizures.

First aid

To provide first aid for hypoglycemic seizure, you need to perform the following actions:

  • give the patient a drink of water with sugar. Suit sweet tea, juice with a high content of glucose. Carbohydrate food should not be given during an attack: in such a state a person may not be able to chew it,
  • anoint the gums with a special glucose paste,
  • if the sick person is sick, you need to help him lie on his side. If vomiting has begun, it is necessary to clear the affected person of vomit,
  • if convulsions are observed, it is necessary to ensure that the patient does not get through the tongue. It is recommended to insert a spoon or stick between the teeth.

The following actions are recommended for stopping a hyperglycemic attack:

  • if the glucose concentration is higher than 14 mmol / l, it is worthwhile to promptly inject insulin of a short type of action (about two units). Large doses can not be used. The next injection should be done no sooner than a couple of hours after the first injection,
  • saturate the body with vitamins, carbohydrates and proteins. These elements restore the acid-base balance. Soda solution and mineral water help.

If a person doesn’t get better after the events, urgently need urgent help.

Drug treatment

It is important that patients with such a diagnosis always have the right medication with them.

This will help to quickly remove the attack. When hyperglycemia is used insulin, which quickly lowers sugar. For example, Biogulin, Diaprad, Actrapid, Insuman or Humulin.

For the treatment of a hypoglycemic attack, the drug Glucagon is administered intravenously. In order to avoid high or low sugar seizures, it is necessary to adjust the dosage of the glucose-lowering agent used, to revise your diet. You may need to select another drug.

Folk remedies

For the treatment of diabetes mellitus insulin-independent type and the prevention of attacks of the disease using traditional methods. Good results gives nettle and fees based on it. The plant lowers sugar, improves the intestinal microflora, normalizes digestion, improves the functioning of the liver and respiratory system.

The following are effective recipes:

  • in equal parts to mix the leaves of blueberries, nettles, lingonberries and galegi. Take two tablespoons of the composition and pour 0.5 liters of boiling water. Take 2/3 cup three times a day,
  • Nettle, clover, celandine and yarrow take in proportion 4: 2: 1: 3. Tablespoon pour 200 ml of boiling water. Drink a third of a glass three times a day.

Related videos

Symptoms and effects of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus:

Thus, it is important to be able to recognize a diabetic attack at the very beginning. It manifests characteristic symptoms, the severity of which increases with a decrease or increase in the concentration of sugar in the plasma. With a hypo-, hyperglycemic seizure, it is necessary to act promptly to prevent the development of coma.

  • Stabilizes sugar levels for long
  • Restores insulin production by the pancreas

Epilepsy on the background of type 1 diabetes mellitus: causes and treatment

Seizures are a common complication of diabetes. Practically all patients with this chronic disease suffer from them. In most diabetics, convulsions manifest as sharp and very severe pain in the arms and legs. Such attacks most often occur at night and cause severe suffering to patients.

But for some people diagnosed with diabetes, cramps appear differently. They affect all the muscles of the body, causing their intense contraction and often provoking uncontrolled movement of the limbs. With such attacks, a person often falls to the ground and may even lose consciousness.

Such convulsions are most often observed in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and in their symptoms are similar to epileptic seizures. But can epilepsy develop on the background of type 1 diabetes mellitus and what can provoke such attacks? It is these questions that most often interest patients with “juvenile” diabetes.

Causes of Diabetic Seizures

With a sharp decrease in the level of sugar in the blood, an increase in body temperature or a long stay in direct sunlight (overheating) with diabetes, seizures may occur. But they do not last long (up to 3-5 minutes). These manifestations complicate a person’s life, but they are not related to epilepsy due to the different nature of occurrence.

Acute or chronic seizures in people with diabetes are life threatening and can occur with the following factors:

  • hypoglycemia,
  • hyperglycemia,
  • ketoacitis,
  • coma.
Blood Sugar Indicators

Seizures can also occur with irregular nutrition, physical exertion and lack of proper rest, uncontrolled medication, low sugar, and pancreatic pathologies.

Attention! It is necessary to remember one more important point: the muscles involuntarily contract due to dehydration of the body. This is due to the absorption of water from the body by glucose and a violation of the water-salt metabolism due to increased diuresis. The resulting deficiency of magnesium, sodium and potassium leads to involuntary muscle contraction.

In diabetics, the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is disturbed. Its deficiency disrupts the metabolism of muscle cells, which prevents them from completely relaxing. Due to pathological processes in the vessels: deterioration of blood circulation, accumulation of metabolic products occurs, especially lactic acid and muscle tissue overwork, which also leads to their reduction.

Causes of epilepsy

The causes of the development of epilepsy by medicine are not fully understood. Her seizures last from 15 minutes and longer, develop due to a sharp malfunction of the brain of the head in a certain area. When diabetes seizures (spasms) can be frequent, regardless of the concentration of sugar in the blood.

The following can contribute to their offensive:

  • trauma or tumor or brain cyst, congenital defects,
  • cerebral hemorrhage
  • penetration of infection into the brain, which leads to encephalitis, meningitis, brain abscess,
  • stroke: hemorrhoidal or ischemic,
  • burdened heredity (parents with diabetes),
  • intrauterine development with anomalies,
  • drug and alcohol use
  • drug abuse: antidepressants, antipsychotics, antibiotics, bronchodilators,
  • development of antiphospholipid syndrome or multiple sclerosis.

An epileptic seizure in diabetes occurs suddenly. At the same time visible provoking factors may be absent. Shortly before the attack, the patient loses appetite and sleep, becomes irritable. He often loses consciousness, falls to the ground and "beats", does not respond to the touch and what is happening around him.

Convulsions shackle the entire body, warped face, movements become chaotic or monotonous, there is no reaction of the pupils to light. After stopping the attack, the person cannot remember anything, becomes weak and drowsy.

It is important to know. Diabetic seizures occur rarely and are not intermittent and occur in the absence of control over the concentration of sugar in the blood. Epileptic seizures occur after certain periods, which can be increased only by prolonged adequate treatment.

Distinctive features of diabetes and epilepsy

According to the research, it was concluded that with a stable course of diabetes, there are no noticeable effects on the course of epilepsy. But with unstable diabetes, frequent hypoglycemia, epileptic seizures occur more often and are severe.

The personality of a diabetic patient is altered by an epileptic type in combination with a multi-intellectual impairment due to hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycemia leads to twilight states of consciousness and epileptic seizures at night. With repeated hypoglycemic conditions in the daytime convulsive epileptic seizures may not be.

Insulin hypoglycemia is not considered to be a direct cause of the development of epilepsy. Otherwise, mental patients receiving insulin shock therapy could suffer from persistent epileptiform syndrome.

The researchers note that by reducing the insulin dose, its temporary cancellation of the manifestation of epilepsy does not become more frequent. The course of seizures (in hypothalamic epilepsy) does not change when a large amount of carbohydrates is significantly injected.

The main causes of the development and detection of epilepsy, hypothalamic epilepsy and diabetes include traumatic brain injury and neuroinfection. Hypoglycemic states only reveal epilepsy if there are no massive cerebral hemorrhages.

Diagnostic features

Epilepsy is diagnosed in persons with or without diabetes according to the same criteria. It is more difficult to make a differential diagnosis between a hypoglycemic state and an attack of hypothalamic epilepsy or a vegetative-vascular crisis.

Studies have shown that a seizure of hypothalamic epilepsy differs from a hypoglycemic state by such factors:

  • there is no connection with food intake and insulin injections (with insulin hypoglycemia, hypothalamic paroxysm occurs),
  • may occur when the level of sugar in the blood, the usual for the patient,
  • often accompanied by increased body and skin temperature, polyuria, bowel movements, high blood pressure, a sense of fear of death,
  • with the introduction of carbohydrates or reducing the insulin dose is not stopped and does not become less frequent,
  • After using anti-epilepsy therapy, the periods between seizures become longer,
  • Paroxysmal bilateral synchronous discharges are often seen on the ECG.

Emergency help

During epileptic seizures, people are not aware of what is happening to them: they fall, beat their heads and their whole bodies on the floor, roll their eyes and make incomprehensible sounds, and do not remember anything after stopping the attack. Therefore, to help in such cases the patient can only people who are near at this moment, although this requires strong nerves.

The consequences of epileptic seizures cannot be foreseen, therefore it is important to immediately call for emergency assistance and to provide all possible emergency assistance:

  1. If a person has just started to fall, then you need to catch him and help him to lie on his side. So you can avoid a head injury and a fracture of the cervical vertebrae. If he has already fallen, then you need to turn his head to one side and remove all dangerous objects around him: sharp objects and tools, stones, pull away from the sharp corners of the furniture.
  2. Position the patient on a flat surface and put something under his head, which must be supported to avoid injury.
  3. It is important to know. If the epileptic mouth is open, then you should try to insert a scarf or any tissue between your teeth so that it does not bite your tongue. Forcibly shove in spoons, screwdrivers, knives and other objects is impossible. This most often leads to injury of the mucous and throat, obstruction of the trachea and bronchi from fragile objects, breakage of the teeth. You can not hold it strongly for limbs.
  4. It is necessary to sit on the knees of the patient's head, place the head between the legs and hold the head with both hands, then the traumatic brain injury can be avoided.
  5. If an epileptic has spontaneously urinated, then it will soon become easier. In such cases, you need to cover him with something in order to avoid outsiders' ridicule and not cause the patient to feel guilty or embarrassed, since this situation is serious stress for him.
Help with epileptic seizure

How to conduct emergency care for an epileptic seizure is given in the video:

How to eliminate diabetic seizures

It is known that in order to prevent diabetic convulsions, it is necessary to monitor the level of sugar in the blood and prevent the development of hypoglycemia. It begins with a sharp drop in blood glucose to below 2.8 mmol / l.

The body, and especially the central nervous system, is under stress and lack of energy, since glucose is the main food for the brain of the head. And when it is deficient, the neural connections are broken, and the neurons die.

If hypoglycemic convulsions have already begun, then the patient must be urgently laid on the bed and call a doctor. Glycemic episodes are treatable, and should be stopped to avoid changes in the brain that may be irreversible.

The light form of hypoglycemia is eliminated with glucose tablets and sweet syrup, tea with sugar or caramel candy, fruit juice and other sweet drink without gas. In addition, the patient may eat a product containing complex carbohydrates: a dish of pasta or noodle, brown rice, a few pieces of whole grain or bran bread.

Severe hypoglycemia should be eliminated in the hospital, where glucose solution will be poured inside the vein, treated with glucocorticosteroids to increase blood sugar. Sometimes you have to remove from hypoglycemic coma, prevent stroke or heart attack.

Withdrawal from hypoglycemic shock

Convulsive seizures most often occur in the muscles of the legs, less often reduces the muscles of the hips, abdomen and back. There is a contraction of one or a group of muscles accompanied by pain due to the release of a large amount of cell waste for a short period of time and irritation of the nerves.

Diabetic convulsions eliminate symptomatic therapy, appropriate diet, microelements, including magnesium and calcium, vitamins, anticonvulsants: Acetyprol and others.

With frequent muscle spasms and pains, it is recommended to take remedies for inflammation and painkillers. For beneficial effects on the nervous system, treatment regimens are supplemented with muscle relaxants or antidepressants.

Include methods of physiotherapy, subject to the availability of sensitivity to temperature and mechanical stress:

  • pulsed electro-and magnetic therapy,
  • electrophoresis with drugs
  • reflexology (acupuncture).

Special knitted compression underwear, special shoes for diabetics, and exercise therapy according to an individual program will help to eliminate cramps in diabetes.

Cupping of leg cramps

At home, with cramps in the legs, the patient should sit on the bed, lower the legs and become a bare sole on the floor, keeping the body straight and bringing the limbs together. If, while walking, it reduces a limb, then you need to stand or sit on a bench, take a deep breath, squeeze and pull the contracting muscles towards yourself, and rub the problem area easily.

Squeezing and contraction of contracted muscles during convulsions

In the daily diet it is useful to include the foodstuffs indicated in the illustration below.

Anticonvulsant products for diabetes

At home, you can wipe with lemon juice for 2 weeks of the foot, and after drying wear cotton socks and shoes. Mustard ointment will help, when applied to the affected limb at the first manifestations of seizures.

Anticonvulsant properties are available in lilies of the valley, white mistletoe, walnut, barberry and hawthorn, blackberry and thyme, hops, sweet clover and valerian. But with diabetes, drugs from these plants should be taken carefully and only after consultation with the doctor.

How to reduce epileptic seizures in diabetes

Due to the rapid drop in blood sugar, an epileptic seizure may begin if the hypoglycemic reactions are severe or recur 4-7 times for 30-60 days. According to studies, with daily consumption of fatty acids by diabetics, seizures of epilepsy are reduced by 33%. They are found in mackerel, salmon, tuna, herring, in fish oil preparations, which can be prescribed by a doctor and indicate the dose of administration.

To maintain immunity, to increase the periods of epileptic seizures, vitamins are needed, but their reception must be controlled and properly taken, excluding self-treatment. It should be borne in mind that epilepsy develops not only with diabetes, but also as a result of certain hereditary diseases.

In addition, taking antiepileptic drugs for a long time reduces the level of vitamin E, D, C, B22, B6, B2, biotin, beta-carotene, and folic acid in the body. And this leads to some behavioral disorders. On the other hand, when taking vitamins without control, antiepileptic drugs will be ineffective, and seizures will then become more frequent.

Vitamin deficiency reduces the frequency of epileptic seizures in pregnant women

Products with vitamins

The figure below shows useful products for vitamin therapy.

Products for inclusion in the menu for epilepsy

Thus, the treatment of epilepsy is carried out by the appointment of vitamins:

  • group B: B2 (Riboflavin, Lactoflavin), B5 (Pantothenic Acid), B1 (Thiamine), B6 ​​(Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal and Pyridoxamine), B7 (Biotin, Vitamin H, Coenzyme R), B9 (Folic Acid), B23 (Carnitine),
  • WITH - ascorbic acid,
  • D - Ergocalciferol (D2), Cholecalciferol (D3),
  • E - tocopherol.

Preparations for epilepsy

In diabetes, epilepsy treatment is carried out according to individual programs with barbiturates. But not all barbiturates due to side effects can be used to lengthen (increase) periods of epileptic seizures to diabetics, so their appointment can be controversial and very careful.

For example, when prescribing Benzonal (modifications of the Phenobarbital molecule with a benzoic acid residue), the generalized effects of the drug will be accompanied by the same effects as those of Phenobarbital.

Although Benzonal influences beneficially the liver bilirubin metabolism, is less hepatotoxic and does not cause drowsiness, it cannot be used for type 2 diabetes and should be used carefully for type 1 diabetes, contraindicated for hypersensitivity, anemia, bronchial asthma, impaired kidney function and liver, adrenal insufficiency, depressive state, pregnancy .

Epilepsy Medications

Carefully approach the treatment of the following drugs for epilepsy:

  • Benzobamil, Maliazin, Pagluferal 1,2,3, Thiopental, Phenobarbital,
  • Difeninom (Fenitonin) - derivatives of hydantoin,
  • Sukilepom (from the group of succinimides),
  • Eminostilbenes: Carbamazepine, Carbapine, Mazepin, Stazepinom, Finlepsinom, Finlepsinom-Retard,
  • Valproatomy: Depactin, Depactin Entric 300, Depactin Chrono 500, Dipromal, Convulex, Convulsophine,
  • Benzodiazipines: Antelepsin, Antelepsin 1, Berlidorm 5, Valium Roche, Diazepam, Diazpex, Clobazam, Clonazepam, Nitrazepam, Radeorm 5, Relanium, Seduxen, Sibazone, Eunoctin,
  • Gaba transaminase selective inhibitors: Sabril,
  • Other means: Hexamidine, Geminervin, Cortexin, Lamictal, Teasercin, Chloracon, Epilapton.

Questions and Answers

Hello. How to conduct everyday life with epileptic and diabetic convulsive seizures?

Hello. It is necessary to choose, together with the doctor, an anti-epileptic and anticonvulsant drug for diabetes, to adjust the diet after certain periods in order to avoid hypoglycemia. Do not eat immediately before bedtime, for 2 hours, do not overeat, fight constipation with fiber and exercise, even laxatives.

Fluid should be taken throughout the day evenly, even in heat. Reduce the consumption of salt and sweets: sweets, cakes, pastries, pastry, so that there is no feeling of thirst. Drinking in large quantities in a volley can cause an attack, as well as the ingress of large amounts of sweets at once.

Sweet fizzy drinks and mineral water with gas, dishes with spices, spicy flavoring and spices (vinegar, pepper, horseradish, mustard) are contraindicated. Watermelons should not be carried away much.

It is necessary to make a test for sensitivity to products such as margarine, berries, mushrooms, as well as to medicines and other foods. It excludes smoking and alcohol. Other recommendations are given in the article and tables.

It is important to observe the daily regimen, to rest after active labor and sports, to get enough sleep. You should limit daily watching of TV by adults - up to 2-3 hours, for children - up to 1-2 hours. For the sake of safety, in the house (apartment) it is necessary to arrange everything so that the epileptic could not hit the sharp corner of the furniture, another solid object when falling on the floor. In the bathroom should be for patients with open drain and unlocked door.

It is important to keep hot items: a teapot and pots with food on the stove and from there pour out tea and food into individual dishes. Table lamps should be closed with a lampshade to prevent contact with the hot bulb. Irons, electric heaters, hot curling hair should be out of reach. It should also cover with something soft heating battery.

In order not to confuse diabetic convulsions with an epileptic seizure, a differential diagnosis is performed. It is important to follow all the recommendations of the doctor for the treatment of diabetes, so as not to cause hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, ketoacitis and coma.

They lead to epileptic seizures. To reduce epileptic seizures, it is necessary to choose a treatment regimen with medicines and vitamins, change the diet and regimen of the day. Possible dangerous places in the house should be eliminated, a chair should be placed on the bed for the night, or a wooden rim should be adjusted to prevent falling onto the floor.

Sleep on the abdomen and soft pillows is excluded, so that asphyxia does not occur during an attack. Sick children and adults should not be left unattended for long, not only on the street, but also in the house.

Attacks and emergency care for diabetes

A dangerous disease called diabetes struck the world's population as an epidemic. Diabetes is an insidious disease. Insufficiently cured disease threatens with severe exacerbation of the endocrine process.

Attacks in diabetes are characterized as a serious complication. The lack of insulin leads to an increase in the concentration of glucose levels, all types of metabolism in the human body are disturbed.

Factors contributing to the occurrence of an attack

Diabetes mellitus is characterized by complications that may be acute or chronic. Clinically significant and life-threatening for the patient is an acute condition that requires the immediate assistance of a specialist.

Emergency conditions in diabetes indicate the following types of pathology:

  • hypoglycemia,
  • ketoacidosis
  • hyperglycemia,
  • the presence of sugar in the urine,
  • to whom

The emergence of violations contribute to factors such as:

  • irregular meals,
  • exercise stress,
  • uncontrolled medication,
  • pancreatic pathology,
  • low blood sugar.

Diabetic coma as a complication

Convulsive jerking in the leg muscles occurs at night. The basis of a convulsive seizure in diabetes mellitus are impairments in the functioning of the spinal cord.

The patient feels increasing weakness, pain, emaciation. In the early stages of the illness, the convulsions are short-lived, starting at the calf muscles.

Cramps indicate changes in peripheral blood vessels. The patient feels goosebumps on the skin of the legs, tingling in the muscles, passing into cramps. Acidosis effects contribute to increased muscle excitability.

With the development of diabetes, the body loses the ability to maintain the required level of glucose in the blood. Changes in blood plasma cause loss of fluid in cells, coma develops, and electrolyte metabolism disturbances.

Sugar is excreted in the urine, increases the level of acetone and ketone elements in the blood. Patients feel increased thirst, dryness in the mouth, polyuria. The diabetic suffers from itchy skin, the appetite decreases or disappears.

In the subsequent development of coma, symptoms such as:

  • headache,
  • violation of motor function,
  • muscle spasm of the limbs.

The patient has a violation in the work of the stomach and intestines, vomiting, lethargy, refusal to take fluids. Developing a complete loss of consciousness.

Emergency care for diabetes

In the treatment of paroxysmal diabetes, an important role is played by emergency care to the patient. In case of hyperglycemia, it is necessary to give the affected person means that neutralize the excess acid in the cavity of the stomach. For these purposes, use mineral water, soda solution. Insulin is administered to a patient as prescribed by a physician.

With the development of hypoglycemia, a person’s life depends on the speed of first aid.

You must offer diabetic sugar, juice, glucose tablets. Then you should check the blood sugar level. With the deterioration of the condition they call the emergency team.

Prevent the development of diabetes complications - the main task of the attending physician and patient. Thanks to joint efforts it is possible to cope with the disease. Diabetes is a serious problem, it is unacceptable to leave the disease without attention.

Symptoms of diabetes mellitus and how to help the patient

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by impaired metabolic processes in the body. The disease is caused by a lack of synthesis of its own insulin by the pancreas.

The first and later persistent symptoms are thirst, increased daily diuresis, high appetite, weakness, dizziness, and rapid fatigue. This disease is mostly progressive. In addition, there is an attack of diabetes - a serious complication of the disease.

It occurs due to the lack of insulin, which leads to a jump in glucose in the blood, due to which metabolic processes are disturbed.

Manifestation of the disease

Attacks of diabetes in men and women are manifested in the same way and are severe emergency conditions. They include: hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma.

All of the above conditions require immediate medical attention.

But before diabetics have emergencies, certain signs appear.

Hypoglycemia is characterized by a sharp decrease in glucose with normal blood counts. This state is preceded by specific manifestations by which diabetes can be suspected. Such symptoms occur most often for no apparent reason, and include:

  • A sharp feeling of hunger.
  • Trembling and tremor of the body, manifested at any time of the day. Especially characteristic of the limbs.
  • Disturbance of speech, lack of orientation in space.
  • Muscle cramps that can turn into convulsions.
  • Sudden tachycardia, dizziness, pallor of the skin.

In rare cases, there is a violation of consciousness, this is due to the reduction of glucose to 2.8 mmol / l and below. Sometimes a person may faint without any previous symptoms - this is the development of hypoglycemic coma. It can also start if you do not provide assistance in time.

Hyperglycemia is the opposite state, that is, it is described by a high content of glucose in the blood. In medical practice, this condition is considered to be from 10 mmol / l. It is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Severe dryness in the mouth. This symptom occurs in all patients in this condition.
  • Frequent urination and increase in diuresis.
  • Blurred vision.
  • A strong smell of acetone from the mouth.
  • Paroxysmal pain in the peritoneum.
  • Nausea, vomiting.

With hyperglycemia, the first symptom is dry mouth.

The onset of diabetes and the symptoms are very related and important. If you do not provide first aid for hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis may occur. In this case, the symptoms will increase: the patient will experience severe headaches, incessant vomiting, which leads to dehydration.

Ketoacidosis and diabetic coma are extreme conditions for diabetes, requiring urgent hospitalization. Ketoacidosis - the complete absence of insulinase due to the death of beta cells of the pancreas. It occurs mainly in type 1. Coma occurs mainly in type 2 and is determined by high blood sugar levels.

How to avoid

In order to avoid the very onset of diabetes mellitus, the patient needs to follow a low-carb diet and daily calorie intake.

With diabetes, it is important to control your diet.

Since hyper and hypoglycemia are serious conditions, they should be prevented in time. In order to avoid hypoglycemia, it is important to adjust your diet. Required diet at least 5 times a day, every 4 hours.

Exercise should be moderate. Patients with this disease are advised to record the exact date and time of previous attacks and always have glucose tablets that are very effective in hypoglycemia.

To prevent hyperglycemia, it is also important to monitor the correctness of the diet.

It is necessary to exclude sugar in its pure form and easily digestible carbohydrates, as for complex carbohydrates, their amount should be minimal. The diet should include plenty of drinks and an increase in protein foods.

Also reduce the sugar will help light physical exertion. Before you use insulin, you must make at least two measurements of indicators of sugar.

It is much easier to predict attacks and prevent them from fighting.

Complications of Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus itself is a rather dangerous disease. This is due to possible complications that occur in the absence of adequate treatment.

With type 1 diabetes, daily injections of insulin are provided, because of this it is called insulin-dependent.

In addition to the mandatory prescription of medical drugs, the patient must comply with certain rules of nutrition, as well as exercise regularly.

In the case when the patient neglects the basic principles of treatment and prescription of a doctor, the risk of complications increases. Of particular danger is the fact that diabetes affects almost all systems of the human body. Accordingly, complications may appear in the background of any of them.

The development of diabetes of any type is associated with the presence of many factors. One of the most common is heredity. Also causes can be various kinds of viral infections and injuries.

Because of them, it is possible to launch the mechanism of the pathological immune response, as a result of which the pancreatic cells begin to break down. They are responsible in the body for the production of insulin.

Its deficiency leads to the fact that the level of glucose in the blood begins to increase.

The disease usually develops before the age of 20 years. The first type of treatment does not respond, so it is very important to take all the prescribed medications on time. Unfortunately, this will have to do until the end of life. It is necessary to arrest the symptoms of the disease with the help of insulin injections.

The reasons for the development of complications of type 1 diabetes are the fact that in the body, unable to process glucose on its own, the depletion of various organs, including the brain, begins. This happens even despite the amount of food consumed.

If you do not help the artificial introduction of insulin, then the body will begin to replenish the amount of energy lost through the metabolism of fats.

And this can already lead to the formation of ketones, which have a harmful and damaging effect on the brain, as a result of which a person falls into a coma.

Differences between epilepsy and seizures in diabetes

In epilepsy, seizures in frequency occur in different ways, depending on the neglect of the disease. Convulsions will be repeated regularly and their duration is 15 minutes or more.

With a sharp rise or fall in sugar level in a diabetic convulsions will be short-term.

This means that their maximum time will be 15 minutes. Also, convulsions will not be regular, the systemic nature is completely absent.

Epilepsy features

Despite the fact that in medical practice, pathology happens quite often, its causes are still not exactly known. The disease is manifested by a sharp disruption of the area of ​​the brain. This causes disruptions in the interaction of nerve cells and neural connections. It happens simultaneously with 20 billion cells.

It is important! The described pathology does not apply to hereditary diseases. Therefore, parents of epileptics do not transmit the disease to their children. This probability is, but it is minimal.

What triggers an epileptic seizure?

There are a huge number of factors, as well as their combinations are allowed, which provoke attacks.

Neuropathologists, doctors involved in the described pathology, among the most obvious risk factors are called:

  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Benign or malignant brain tumors
  • Excessive drinking
  • Addiction
  • Congenital malformations
  • Brain hemorrhage

Diabetes mellitus in the main causes of epilepsy is absent, it will also not be in the secondary causes. But if a diabetic has a dramatic rise in sugar levels, alcohol intoxication and high fever is observed, all this can trigger the mechanisms of the disease described.

When a diabetic attack passes quickly and does not recur over the coming months, then you should not worry. These were ordinary seizures, the principle of which is described above in this article.

Convulsions are called random and can be caused not only by these factors, but also by overheating of the body.

If the attack was long, convulsions were observed regularly, and then the condition was repeated at least once (even at a normal level of sugar), then perhaps the diabetic has epilepsy.

The exact causes of the occurrence of epilepsy in modern progressive science are still unknown. No one is insured against pathology.

There are about four dozen different forms of how this disease manifests itself.

It should be noted that in 75% of cases, doctors make a favorable prognosis and a full recovery occurs.

Characteristic of complications

The manifestation of complications is due to both the lack of treatment and the duration of the course of the disease itself. Unfortunately, the fact that the body does not produce insulin on its own for 10–15 years cannot but affect the state of individual organs.

So, often with diabetes, the risk of high blood pressure increases, cholesterol levels increase.

In men, due to impaired blood circulation in blood vessels, impotence can develop. And in women, this disease causes difficulties with pregnancy planning.

If such has nevertheless come, then the particular difficulty is control over the state of both the woman and the fetus.

In general, all the complications are divided into the following types: acute, late and chronic.

This group of complications is the greatest danger to the human condition. They usually develop in a fairly short time: from a couple of hours to several days.

In such cases, it becomes more difficult to provide timely medical care, and the consequences of failure to provide one can be fatal. That is why it is important to notice in time the primary symptoms of the development of a particular disease caused by diabetes.

It is believed that if help was not provided within two hours after the onset of the primary symptoms, then it becomes almost impossible to help the patient.

Among the acute complications to which patients with type 1 diabetes are affected, the following are distinguished:

This condition is characterized by a sharp violation of the functionality of the main organs in the human body. Manifested in loss of consciousness. Only patients with type 1 diabetes are prone to this.

The cause of ketoacidosis is the accumulation in the blood of dangerous ketone bodies, i.e. toxic compounds that appear due to the metabolism in the body of excess fat.

Non-compliance with the basic rules of nutrition, trauma, and surgery may contribute to this.

This complication occurs against the background of a sharp change in blood sugar levels.Such a phenomenon for a small amount of time can cause loss of consciousness, in which there will be a lack of reaction of pupils to light, increased sweating, as well as the occurrence of seizures.

All this can end even a coma. Causes of hypoglycemia called the intake of strong alcoholic beverages, increased physical stress on the body, as well as an overdose in the intake of drugs. This complication can occur in patients with any type of diabetes.

A similar condition develops against the background of cardiovascular, renal and hepatic failure. Symptoms include blurred consciousness, impaired breathing, a sharp decrease in blood pressure and the absence of urination. This type of coma is caused by the accumulation of lactic acid in the blood. As a rule, patients over 50 years of age with any type of diabetes are affected.

Such a group consists of states that over the course of several years gradually worsen the condition of the patient. Late complications of type 1 diabetes mellitus cannot always be stopped, even if all treatment recommendations are followed. It remains only to notice their symptoms in time and ask for help. So, these include:

  • Retinopathy is a complication that occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes only 15–20 years after the onset of the disease. It is a lesion of the retina, which can lead to its detachment, and then the complete loss of vision.
  • Angiopathy - fragility of blood vessels, which can lead to thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Develops usually for one year.
  • Polyneuropathy is a condition in which sensitivity in the limbs to pain and heat disappears. Symptoms begin with numbness and burning in the hands and feet. The phenomenon is enhanced at night.
  • Diabetic foot - the appearance of ulcers, abscesses and dead areas in the lower extremities of the diabetic. A complication that can be avoided by paying special attention to the hygiene of the feet, as well as proper selection of shoes (comfortable, never rubbing) and socks (without compressive gum).

Chronic

As noted above, the course of the disease over a long period of time can harm many vital organs. Pathological changes in the composition of the blood, which is characteristic of diabetes, can lead to damage to the following organs and systems:

  • kidneys: against the background of the damaging effects of diabetes, chronic insufficiency occurs over time,
  • skin: due to insufficient blood supply, a diabetic patient is at risk of trophic ulcers, especially in the lower limbs,
  • vessels: due to diabetes, vascular permeability is primarily affected, this phenomenon causes a deficiency of oxygen and other nutrients, which increases the risk of heart attack or other heart diseases,
  • Nervous system: damage to the nerves causes insensitivity of the extremities and constant weakness in them, which can lead to chronic pain.

Prevention

It is almost impossible to prevent the onset of type 1 diabetes, as the factors affecting this are usually not controllable. Preventing the development of many complications is more realistic. The main thing to do is to follow the prescriptions of the attending physician. The main ones include:

  • daily insulin injections,
  • regular balanced nutrition, taking into account restrictions in products,
  • regular moderate exercise
  • constant monitoring of sugar level (using personal blood glucose meter),
  • control of urine sugar level (as prescribed by a physician).

Thus, following certain rules, one can avoid the appearance of many dangerous complications, including for life.

Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy

In ancient times, people understood little the essence of this disease. Very often, epileptics were considered obsessed or crazy, which is why an unenviable fate awaited them.

Thanks to the achievements of modern medicine, we know that epilepsy is a disease of the nervous system in which patients suffer sudden seizures. They are expressed in the form of convulsions, after which a loss of consciousness or the onset of a coma is possible.

Causes of the disease

Epilepsy is a largely controversial disease, especially if we consider the causes of its occurrence. Until now, it has not been unequivocally proven that it is inherited, but more than 40% of epileptics have or have relatives with the same problem.

Also, the causes of this disease may be:

  • traumatic brain injury
  • diseases caused by parasites and viruses (including meningitis),
  • impaired blood supply to the brain and, as a result, oxygen starvation,
  • brain tumors and abscesses.

Unfortunately, the specific causes of convulsions are not known to physicians to this day. Similarly, in 70% of cases, the circumstances of the disease are not clarified.

It is only known that the brain tissue in patients is more sensitive to chemical changes under the influence of various stimuli than in healthy ones. And the same signals received by the brain of an epileptic and a healthy person, in the first case, lead to an attack, and in the second - pass unnoticed.

Signs and symptoms of the disease

The most characteristic symptom of this disease is a convulsive fit. Most often, it is not associated with external stimuli and begins suddenly.

However, he still has precursors: a patient one or two days before a seizure appears sleep disturbances, headache, irritability, lack of appetite, worsening of mood.

During the attack, the epileptic does not react even to the strongest stimuli, the reaction of pupils to light is completely absent. At the end of convulsions, a person may complain of lethargy and drowsiness, although the fit itself will not be remembered.

Also, in addition to large convulsive seizures in patients, small ones can also occur. In such cases, the patient may lose consciousness, but it does not fall. The facial muscles are cramping, the epileptic performs illogical actions or repeats the same movements. After the attack, the person will not remember what happened and will continue to perform the actions that he performed before.

The severity and consequences of attacks are different. If its culprit is any particular part of the brain, then it is called focal. If the whole brain is affected, then it is called generalized. Also, there are mixed types in which the focus begins with one part and then spreads to the whole brain.

Diagnosis of the disease

An epileptic diagnosis is made only as a result of two or more seizures, besides, the absence of other diseases that can cause such a condition is imperative.

Adolescents are most commonly affected by epilepsy, and people at risk of over sixty years are also at risk.

Middle-aged people are less susceptible to true epilepsy and, if they have epileptic seizures, they are caused by previous injuries or strokes.

Newborns can also have one-time seizures, but they are usually caused by high fever, so the likelihood of further development of the disease is very small.

In order to diagnose epilepsy in a patient, first you need to conduct a complete examination and analyze existing health problems. It is also necessary to study the case histories of all his relatives.

With all the complexity of diagnosis, the doctor has to do a huge amount of work: check the symptoms, analyze the frequency and type of seizures with the utmost care.

Electroencephalography (analysis of brain activity), magnetic resonance and computed tomography are also used to refine the analysis.

At the moment there are opportunities to improve the health and well-being of epileptics. With good and proper treatment, the patient has a decrease or complete absence of seizures, that is, a person can lead a normal life.

One of the most common treatment options is treatment with several drugs that affect only a certain part of the human brain, which is the cause of epilepsy in a particular case. Of course, this type of treatment has side effects, so it is important to follow all the prescriptions of the doctors in order to minimize them.

Separate category of patients are pregnant and lactating women. They in no case can not abruptly stop taking drugs against epilepsy. In such cases, additional examination is necessary with the possible change of the drug, but only as prescribed by the attending physician.

If epilepsy progresses and the prescribed medications do not help, a radical method of treatment remains - removal of the damaged part of the brain. But permission for such an operation is given only after a whole set of analyzes, and also requires the presence of high-tech equipment.

Alcoholic epilepsy is considered a special type, a detailed material is given here.
What can be done for treatment at home is written here //www.neuroplus.ru/bolezni/epilepsiya/lechenie-epilepsii-narodnymi-sredstvami.html.

What are the causes of type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is the so-called insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes. This is a disease of the endocrine system, characterized by an absolute deficiency of insulin in the body.

The main difference between type 1 diabetes is the age of onset. Most often, children and teenagers get it. In this case, the symptoms do not go beyond the classical, or common:

  • thirst,
  • Weight loss,
  • ketoacidotic states (an excess of ketone bodies in the blood, which in the normal state of the body are utilized by the organs themselves).

This type of diabetes accounts for 15 percent of all cases. An important feature - symptoms appear sharplyrather than gradually, and rapidly progressing.

Physiological reason for the development of type 1 diabetes

The basis of this disease is destruction, that is, the functional and actual destruction of specialized pancreatic cells. They are located in the islets of Langerhans and are called beta cells. Under the influence of external and internal factors, more precisely, the whole complex of these factors, the cells break down and cease to produce the hormone insulin.

That is, unlike type 2 diabetes, insulin does not just not work as it should, it does not exist at all.

Insulin-dependent organs begin to suffer, and the majority of those in the body. In addition to the fact that the cells of the organs are experiencing a strong lack of energy, at the same time, all the unprocessed glucose remains in the blood, i.e. sugar level increases in blood.

  • As a result of a lack of insulin, fatty tissue suffers.
  • This is the cause of sudden weight loss against the background of the patient's constant increased appetite.
  • Fat cells are rapidly destroyed, releasing into the body a large amount of free fats, which again accumulate in the blood.

A similar process begins in the muscles. Proteins begin to break down, forming amino acids. Their number in the blood of a healthy person is not large, but with type 1 diabetes, it increases dramatically.

To compensate for metabolic disorders in the body and to clean the blood of excess impurities in the form of fats and amino acids, the liver begins to process these substrates into ketone bodies.

They are used by insulin-independent organs, such as the brain, to maintain their work in conditions of insulin deficiency.

But for the rest of the body, an excess of ketone bodies is detrimental and can lead to coma.

Main cause

The main and most common cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the individual failure of the immune system. Therefore, this type of diabetes is referred to as autoimmune diseases.

because of genetic origin of the disease It is believed that diabetes mellitus of the first type is most often hereditary.

If both parents eat properly and are sick with type 1 diabetes, then with a probability of about eighty percent, the child will also be sick.

But many cases are known and the birth of absolutely healthy children in families where several generations suffer from this disease.

Viral infections

The exact causes of diabetes of any type are not fully understood, but the facts proved by statistics do exist. Experts have found the relationship between type 1 diabetes and past viral infections.

Among the "dangerous" diseases are:

  • chickenpox,
  • rubella,
  • measles,
  • viral hepatitis,
  • mumps or mumps.

As can be seen from this list, children and adolescents are most at risk. It is this factor that, in the presence of genetic predisposition, often plays a key role in the development of the disease.

The reason for this relationship is that many viral infections themselves tend to destroy or significantly damage the beta cells pancreas. The body tries to compensate for this damage, but in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, it may take some time between the onset of diabetes and the period of infection.

Even more dangerous are such types of viral infections like congenital rubella, coxsackie virus. In this case, whole islets of pancreatic tissues that produce insulin are destroyed. It is no longer possible to repair such damage.

Viral infections like glomerulonephritis, trigger autoimmune processes. Proteins that enter the body during the life of the virus are very similar to beta cells.

Immunity fights disease by destroying part of the pancreas.

And even after the destruction of the virus, the body's own cells continue to be perceived as dangerous due to the violation of the processes of adaptation and compensation.

Symptoms and signs of diabetes mellitus

Every diabetic should know all about the symptoms with which diabetes attacks are associated.

Speaking directly about the attacks, imply hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, which identifies extremely high or low blood sugar levels.

At the initial stage, it is easiest to stop them, and therefore I would like to draw attention to everything that may indicate a probable onset of an attack.

Manifestations of hypoglycemia

As you know, hypoglycemia is a condition in which indicators are identified blood sugar below normal, namely less than three mmol.

It must be borne in mind that it manifests itself in different ways for everyone, however, some general symptoms can be distinguished, which are strongly recommended to pay attention in the first place.

That is what will give the opportunity to start the recovery process as soon as possible.

People with the presented syndrome often face dizziness, aggravation of consciousness. In addition, there is nervousness, as well as hunger, headaches and even chills. This identifies an increase in pulse rate, as well as some other signs that deserve no less attention:

  • the skin becomes more pale,
  • denotes a significant degree of sweating,
  • identified impaired coordination of movements, as well as the ability to concentrate.

A diabetic can faint suddenly or even fall into a coma.Further, I would like to draw attention to the fact that hypoglycemia can be characterized by three successive degrees of severity: mild, moderate and severe. The lower the blood sugar indices fall, the more pronounced the symptoms and manifestations of diabetes in this particular case.

In the mild stage of the pathological condition, the meter readings will drop below 3.8 mmol.

The diabetic will experience a gratuitous anxiety, considerable nervousness, and nausea. In addition, the person will complain of hunger, chills can form, as well as numbness of the tips of the fingers or lips. In some cases even tachycardia can be identified.

Speaking about moderate hypoglycemia, it is important to understand that it is associated with a worsening of consciousness and mood.

At the same time, a person becomes extremely irritable, faces significant difficulties when it is necessary to concentrate or the need for a thought process.

There may be blurred vision, as well as dizziness and significant pain. Due to weakness and problems with coordination of movements, the patient begins to walk and talk with great difficulty.

In the case when the blood sugar indices drop to less than 2.2 mmol, this should be taken as the onset of severe hypoglycemia. Such a condition can trigger various syndromes: an epileptic seizure, convulsions, loss of consciousness and even a coma. The temperature indicators of the body in this case are significantly reduced.

Manifestations of hyperglycemia

First of all, a diabetic should pay attention to the onset of symptoms such as severe thirst. This is due to the fact that when the ratio of glucose in the blood is greater than 10 mmol, sugar begins to stand out along with the urine.

Together with it, some important components, namely, useful salts, start to be washed out. All this provokes significant weakness and headaches, as well as dry mouth, itchy skin and weight loss.

We should not forget about such manifestations as the deterioration of visual functions and loss of consciousness.

We should not forget about cold and insensitive limbs, constipation and diarrhea. According to experts, an attack of diabetes and symptoms may be associated with other problems in the gastrointestinal tract.

Hyperglycemia can provoke ketonuria (the presence of specific acetone bodies in the urine) and ketoacidosis (destabilization of carbohydrate metabolism, which leads to diabetic coma).

Speaking about this, I would like to draw attention to the fact that:

  1. the effect of the presented mechanism is as follows: due to the increased ratio of blood sugar and the deficiency of the hormonal component, glucose does not penetrate into the cells,
  2. In this regard, the liver, which includes glycogen, begins the process of its splitting to glucose. This, in turn, further increases the ratio of sugar,
  3. cells stop getting energy, which starts the process of splitting fat. It is in this case that the production of ketone bodies, namely acetone, is noted.

Thus, they penetrate into the blood, as a result of which there is a violation of the natural acid balance, which provokes the most severe symptoms in diabetes mellitus.

Additional information

The onset of diabetes is not only dangerous in itself, namely its unpleasant or painful symptoms.

The high probability of the formation of various complications and critical consequences that may well accompany the development of the presented disease should be considered critical.

Speaking about this, they pay attention to the fact that in case of diabetes mellitus, a coma, an epileptic seizure can develop as a result of the symptoms of an attack - as already mentioned earlier.

However, this is not all, because another possible consequence of death may be a diabetic. This becomes possible only if the recovery process is not started on time.

In addition, the likelihood of seizures or death increases, if you do not follow the recommendations of a specialist or use folk remedies, to carry out self-treatment.

All this is strongly not recommended for those who have symptoms associated with an attack of diabetes.

Thus, any change in well-being that affects diabetic status must be recorded by the diabetic. This will prevent the development of complications and critical consequences, as well as provide an opportunity to achieve a significant improvement in well-being.

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Watch the video: What is hypoglycemia? - DiaBiteSize (April 2020).