Diabetes mellitus is a disease associated with absolute or relative insufficiency of insulin in the body and is characterized by impaired carbohydrate metabolism and other metabolic disorders. Simply put, diabetes is not a disease in the full sense, but an abnormal lifestyle and diet. Therefore, nutrition in diabetes, plays an important role in the health of the patient.
Today we look at:
Foods that need to be included and excluded from the diet in type 2 diabetes
Nutrition for diabetes should be right and include in the diet foods with a low glycemic index (from 10 to 40):
- vegetables: tomatoes, eggplants, cabbage, cucumbers, zucchini, green beans and other green vegetables
- mushrooms and various nuts
- fruits and berries: cherry, cranberry, lingonberry, plum, pear, apple, gooseberry, strawberry, strawberry and juice from them
- citrus fruits: lemon, orange, mandarin and grapefruit
- cereals and bran products: barley bread, rice bran, oat flakes, buckwheat, spaghetti and pasta made from durum flour.
- Dietary meat: poultry, rabbit, turkey, veal
- low-fat fish and fish products
- dark chocolate
- cold pressed linseed oil
- mineral water: Borjomi, Yessentuki, Polyana Kvasova
Restrict consumption of foods with an average glycemic index (from 40 to 70)
- dairy products: kefir, milk, low fat or low fat yogurt
- vegetables: beets (boiled and stewed), carrots, legumes
- whole grain bread, rye bread, black yeast bread
- fresh and canned pineapple
- apple and grape juice, no sugar
- instant oatmeal
- raisin, melon, kiwi
- industrial mayonnaise
- canned corn
- wheat flour pancakes
- brown rice
Exclude foods with a high glycemic index (from 70 to 100)
- wheat cereal and bread
- french fries and baked
- caramel and honey, jam, candy, sugar
- White bread
- alcohol and sweet carbonated and non-carbonated drinks
- coffee, tea, replacing them with chicory, green tea and tea from blueberry leaves
- sweet fruits: grapes, bananas
- processed meat products: sausages, sausages, sardeli, skewers, smoked meat.
Together with the medication prescribed by the doctor, you need to use medicinal plants: chicory, blueberry leaves, dandelion root, cuff, bean leaves and the collection of sugar-reducing herbs.
In addition, diabetics are shown an active lifestyle, moving more, this is walking up to 2 km per day, walking up the stairs, physical work, unless of course you have suffered a heart attack or stroke. Adjust the sleep mode, sleep at least 7 hours a day, go to bed no later than 1 am.
Basic dietary steps and rules for type 2 diabetes
It is no secret that diabetes affects mainly obese people.
The first step of the diet -2 weeks, getting rid of extra pounds. During this period, eating only foods with a low glycemic index.
With a high blood sugar content, nutrition is recommended strictly 3 times a day, without a snack, then insulin will have time to be utilized. Instead of snacking, drink water or eat fruit.
Portions should be small, as nutritionists say, a portion should be placed in the palm.
Second step diet - 15 days, consolidation of results. During this period, we eat foods with low and medium glycemic index. We limit the intake of sugar, honey, muffin, potatoes, bananas, white rice and corn.
Third step diet - the rest of your life, keeping the form and following the rules. Menus should be low and medium glycemic.
From my own experience, I am a diabetic with 11 years of experience, I know that 70% of well-being depends on what you have eaten for breakfast, lunch and dinner, and 20% of the activity during the day and only 10% of medications. At least it is for me, but still))))
Meals with diabetes on BREAKFAST list of dishes
For breakfast you can prepare such dishes:
1. An oatmeal - on natural grain and low-fat milk, with addition of a small amount of wild berries, raisin, dried apricots.
2. Muesli or bran - with milk or low-fat yogurt.
3. Buckwheat porridge with milk or boiled: tongue, rabbit, meat, or chopstick, meat souffle.
4. Freshly made toasts with a slice of cheese from whole-grain bread.
5. Fat-free or low-fat cottage cheese, with sour cream, yogurt or kefir.
6. Cheesecakes with sour cream.
7. Cabbage or potato patties with sour cream.
8. Green tea based on natural herbs. Tea with milk.
9. Fruits: pears, apples, oranges, grapefruits.
10. Boiled eggs with homemade mayonnaise.
11. Omelet with squids
12. Cabbage Casserole in the oven
13. Zucchini Casserole
14. Meat Pudding
Food for diabetes at LUNCH the list of dishes
A normal lunch consists of salads, first, second courses, desserts and drinks. The following dishes are offered for lunch:
1. Salad leaves may be lettuce, fresh cabbage, including and Peking, cauliflower, fresh vegetables (radish, radish, cucumber, tomato), celery, broccoli, mushrooms, cheeses and fruits.
1. Cooked meat or stew from it with stewed cabbage.
2. Beef-planed with mashed potatoes.
3. Goulash with boiled potatoes.
4. Boiled chicken with millet porridge.
5. Mexican pita with feta cheese and mushrooms.
6. Sandwiches to your taste, based on whole-grain bread.
1. Jelly lemon without sugar.
2. Carrot cake
3. Cottage Cheese Soufflé
4. Chocolate Cake Stevia Microwave
5. Pumpkin cheesecake without sugar and semolina
6. Diet cake Napoleon
7. Baked apples
2. Kefir or kefir with cinnamon
3. Broth or rosehip tea
4. Tea with milk thistle (for weight loss)
5. Fruit compote with sweetener
1 hour before bedtime
The above list of dishes, this is a recommendation, you have to work out your menu and focus on your well-being.
Hello. Thank. I didn’t quite understand: you write that fruits are unlimited (except for bananas and grapes) ... And again, I quote: ... nutrition is recommended strictly 3 times a day, without a snack, then insulin will have time to be utilized. Instead of snacking, drink water or eat fruit ... Well, about the water is clear, but what about fruit? When will it be disposed of? Specifically, my fruit significantly increases the level ... He does not have time to fall, but I want to eat all the time ... And another important (for me) question is my evening hard work for the PC (editor) ... I can still somehow manage to lie down no later than an hour sleep at night, but go to sleep without food - well, no way ... The brain is tired and wants to eat and calm down. A glass of kefir does not save ... I, sometimes, “hold on” almost until the morning ... but I cannot fall asleep from hunger, and then, realizing that tomorrow I have to be at least in some form, I get up and eat. Well, purely animal instincts ... I didn’t even think that hunger could be so exhausting ... What advice do you have?
Good afternoon, Irina. Thanks for the comment. What I want to tell you, but that’s what each person’s body and way of life is different, I think you will agree with me. I have type 2 diabetes mellitus for 12 years (it was discovered, and it was probably before that when I went to the doctor there were 16 units), now it’s holding 8 - 10, if I allow myself to eat the excess, it can be 15 or higher. Sorry for the details, but thank God, basically the level of sugar doesn’t jump so often, it’s mostly kept at the same level.
I will share, if I may, my observations on myself. I concluded that I can not eat after 18 hours, although I go to bed, mostly at 23 o'clock. There are fruits, I like apples very much, after 15 hours I can’t, if I eat later, sugar will rise in the morning. Of course, I also know the feeling of hunger, especially when it is late, as you work at a computer, then I can eat a bran bread and cheese sandwich or chicory with a slice of lemon. The lemon makes me feel as if I am full, maybe it wasn’t correctly expressed, but then I don’t feel like eating and drinking.
You cannot torture yourself with hunger, pick up products with a low glucemic index (you can look at the table on my site) and eat. I reviewed a lot of materials on this subject and some of the authors, nutritionists, recommend the last meal 2-3 hours before bedtime.
I don’t know if my confession helped you, but I sincerely wish you to find your method, and I also want to advise you to review Vitaly Ostrovsky’s videos in YouTube, maybe there will also be something useful for yourself.
Good health to you and thanks again. Sincerely, Elena.
Product groups, their bread units and glycemic index
For patients with diabetes mellitus, by the amount of carbohydrates contained in them, all products are divided into 3 categories. The first group is food, which has practically no sugars in its composition (spinach, meat, cabbage, eggs, cucumbers, fish).
Low carbohydrate products belong to the second category. These include some fruits (apples), legumes, vegetables (carrots, beets) and dairy products. The third group is food, with a high content of carbohydrates (from 69%) - sugar, sweet fruits (grapes, dates, bananas) potatoes, pasta, cereals, white flour products.
In addition to the amount of carbohydrates, the recipe for diabetes mellitus implies using in the process of cooking with low GI and HE. But how to count these indicators and what are they?
GI is one of the characteristics of carbohydrates, reflecting their ability to raise the concentration of glucose in the blood. The greater the GI of the product, the sooner and higher the sugar content will become after it has been eaten. However, this indicator is influenced not only by the carbohydrate content of food, but also by the presence of other components in it and its quantity.
How to calculate the glycemic index of the product or dishes for diabetics with photos? To do this, use a special table, which shows the indicators of food with low, medium and high GI. And when calculating the GI of the finished dish with diabetes, it is important to consider the method and time of cooking.
And how to calculate the bread units in the preparation of dishes for all diabetics and what is this value? HE is an indicator used to evaluate the carbohydrate content of foods.
One XE is equivalent to 25 grams of bread or 12 grams of sugar, and in the USA, 1 XE corresponds to 15 grams of carbohydrates. Therefore, the table of these indicators may be different.
To calculate the number of XU, it is convenient to use the bread units calculator. It is especially important to calculate this indicator if you cook dishes for type 1 diabetics. So, the higher the CEP product, the greater the amount of insulin subsequently have to enter or take drugs that reduce blood sugar.
Nutrition rules, permitted and prohibited foods
A special menu for diabetics is developed by endocrinologists and nutritionists. Such a nutritional system for carbohydrate metabolism disorders will have to be adhered to throughout life, which will help control the course of the disease and prevent the occurrence of diabetic complications.
There are certain recommendations that must be followed daily in order to reduce the concentration of glucose in the blood. So, you need to eat in 3-4 hours, taking food in small quantities.
Dinner is better for 2 hours before bedtime. Breakfast can not be skipped to prevent drops in blood sugar levels.
Nutrition for diabetes should consist of:
- carbohydrates (up to 350 g per day),
- fat (up to 80 g), including vegetable,
- proteins of plant and animal origin (45 g each).
Diabetics are allowed to eat 12 grams of salt per day. Ideally, the patient will drink 1.5 liters of water per day.
What foods and dishes it is undesirable to include in the daily menu for diabetes. Such foods include fatty meat, fish, broths based on them, smoked meats, canned goods, sausages, sugar, sweets, and animal cooking oils.
Also, diabetic dishes should not contain salted and pickled vegetables, dough products (puff, butter), pasta, semolina and rice. Fatty, spicy, salty sauce, and cheeses, sweet drinks and fruits (dates, bananas, grapes, figs) are also prohibited.
And what can you eat with diabetes? Recipes for people with chronic glycemia are considered useful if they include:
- almost all vegetables (potatoes are limited) and greens,
- cereals (porridge, wheat, barley, barley porridge, buckwheat),
- lean products from wholegrain, rye flour with bran,
- meat and offal (fillet of beef, rabbit, turkey, chicken, tongue, liver),
- dairy products (low-fat, unsalted cottage cheese, cheese, sour cream, yogurt, kefir),
- eggs (up to 1.5 pieces per day),
- lean fish (tuna, hake, perch),
- fresh berries and fruits, excluding the above bananas, dates, grapes,
- fats (vegetable oils, butter, melted),
- spices (cloves, marjoram, cinnamon, parsley).
How can you prepare meals for people suffering from chronic glycemia? Food is allowed to process in different ways - cook, bake, simmer in a double boiler, but do not fry.
When composing a daily menu for a diabetic, it is important to take into account that the caloric content of a meal does not exceed 2400 calories. An approximate diet for a person suffering from high blood sugar, looks like this. Immediately after waking up, you can eat low-fat cottage cheese, buckwheat, or use any lean recipes. Allowed to drink tea, coffee or milk.
At the second breakfast, popular recipes recommend a decoction of wheat bran, after eating which will reduce the level of sugar. For dinner, hot low-calorie dishes (buckwheat soup, vegetable borscht, low-fat broth with meatballs) are suitable. An alternative is meat, vegetable salads or casseroles.
At lunch time it is useful to eat fruits, for example, apples, plums or pears.
At dinner, you can cook fish for a couple, a salad of spinach and cabbage and drink weak tea, and before going to bed kefir or skimmed milk.
Diabetic recipes often include salads. This is a light and healthy food, practically free of carbohydrates.
To saturate the body with vitamins and microelements, you can prepare a salad from fresh vegetables, including such ingredients - lettuce, Brussels sprouts, spinach, carrots, beans, salt and sour cream (10-15% fat).
How to cook a dish? Vegetables are thoroughly washed, the top leaves are removed from the cabbage and finely chopped.
Beans cut into rings, and carrots are ground on a grater. A plate is lined with spinach leaves, where they spread the vegetables in a heap and sprinkle them with sour cream and sprinkle with greens.
Also, recipes for diabetes can complement unusual ingredients. One of these dishes is spring salad with garlic (3 cloves), dandelion (60 g), primula (40 g), one egg, olive oil (2 spoons), primrose (50 g).
Dandelion is soaked in salt water, crushed and mixed with chopped primrose, nettle, garlic. All seasoned with oil, salt and sprinkled with egg.
Recipes for diabetes can be not only useful, but tasty. One of these is the salad of shrimp and celery. Before making it, you need to stock up on the following ingredients:
- seafood (150 g),
- celery (150 g),
- fresh peas (4 spoons),
- one cucumber,
- potatoes (150 g),
- a little dill and salt,
- low-fat mayonnaise (2 spoons).
Shrimp, potatoes and celery must be boiled beforehand. They are crushed and mixed with chopped cucumber, green peas. Then they fill with mayonnaise, salt and sprinkle with chopped dill.
Diabetic dishes are not only low-calorie and healthy, but also varied. Thus, the daily menu can diversify eggplant snack with walnuts and pomegranates.
Eggplants (1 kg) are washed, their tails are cut off and baked in the oven. When they are sintered and slightly cool, they are peeled and mashed.
Chopped nuts (200 g) and grains of one large pomegranate are mixed with eggplants, two chopped garlic cloves. Caviar is seasoned with butter (preferably olive) and salted.
Similar meals can be eaten for lunch and breakfast.
Main and first courses
If you properly cook well-known dishes that are considered junk food, you can even get rid of high blood sugar. So, hearty recipes for diabetics with photos can also be useful. Such foods include burgers.
For their preparation, you will need chicken or turkey fillet (500 g) and one chicken egg. The meat is crushed, mixed with egg, pepper and salt.
The stuffing is stirred, form small balls of it, spread them on a baking sheet, which is put in the oven, heated to 200 degrees. Cutlets are ready, if easily punctured.
With diabetes, even with insulin-dependent diabetes, recipes can also be exquisite. These dishes include flood tongue. For its preparation you will need gelatin cucumber, tongue (300 g), chicken egg, lemon and parsley.
The tongue is cooked until it becomes soft. The hot product is immersed in cooled water and skin is removed from it. After it is boiled for 20 minutes, jelly is made from the resulting broth.
To do this, gelatin is poured into a container with broth, all is filtered and cooled. From above spread the cut tongue, which is decorated with cucumber, lemon, greens, egg, and then poured over with broth with gelatin.
Lenten dishes are very useful for diabetes, while they can be not only light, but also nourishing. With chronic glycemia, it is not necessary to abandon the usual food, for example, stuffed pepper.
The recipe for diabetics of this dish is very simple. For this you will need:
- tomato juice,
- Bulgarian pepper
- vegetable oil,
- spices, salt and greens.
The rice is welded a little. Pepper wash, cut off the top and cleaned from the seeds. Carrots and onions are crushed, stewed in a frying pan with a small amount of butter and mixed with salted rice with spices.
Peppers begin rice-vegetable mixture and placed in a pan filled with tomato juice and water. Peppers stew in a gravy over low heat for about 40-50 minutes.
Meat broth with spinach and eggs is the first dish that can be fed to patients with any type of diabetes, regardless of its severity. To cook it you need eggs (4 pieces), broth from lean meat (half a liter), parsley root, butter (50 g), onions (one head), spinach (80 g), carrots (1 piece), pepper and salt .
In the broth add parsley, one carrot and onion. Spinach stew with oil and water, and then fray, using a sieve.
Yolks, spices, salt and butter are triturated with spinach and boiled in a water bath for 15 minutes. Then the mixture is added to the meat fat, which also put, cooked earlier, mashed carrots.
Standard recipes for diabetes can also be interpreted. Therefore, with this disease it is allowed to eat such hot dishes as diet soup. For its preparation it is necessary to prepare the following products:
- beans (1 cup),
- chicken fillet (2 breasts),
- beets, carrots, lemon, onions (1 piece each),
- tomato paste (3 spoons),
- cabbage (200 g),
- garlic, bay leaf, pepper, salt, dill.
Beans are soaked for 8 hours. Then they are boiled together with fillet, cut into slices until half cooked.
Grated beets are added to boiling broth, after the second boil, half of the lemon is squeezed into it. When the beets become transparent, add chopped carrots and sliced cabbage to the borsch.
Next, put a whole onion, 2 cloves of garlic and tomato paste in the pan. At the end of cooking, spices and salt are added to borscht.
In order for diabetic dishes to have a richer taste, they can be seasoned with various sauces. The permitted recipes for diabetics are creamy sauce with horseradish (sour cream, mustard, green onions, salt, horseradish root), mustard with boiled yolk, tomato with spices and chopped greens.
Many diabetics can not completely give up sweets. Therefore, they are interested in the question of what is possible from desserts.
Those who have diabetes mellitus recipes of dishes in which there is sugar, can not be used. But there are certain types of sugar-free sweets that are available even with this condition. For example, coffee ice cream with avocado, orange and honey.
The upper part of the citrus is grated, and the juice is squeezed out of the pulp. Blender mix cocoa powder, honey, avocado and juice.
A lot of spread in a bowl, which add orange zest and pieces of cocoa beans. Then put the dishes with dessert in the freezer for 30 minutes.
The most unusual recipes for diabetics are provided in the video in this article.