Causes of diabetes in adults and children

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Diabetes in children - A chronic metabolic disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion and the development of hyperglycemia. Diabetes in children usually develops violently, accompanied by rapid weight loss of the child with increased appetite, indomitable thirst and abundant urination. In order to detect diabetes in children, a comprehensive laboratory diagnosis (determination of sugar, glucose tolerance, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, C-peptide, Ab to pancreatic β-cells in blood, glucosuria, etc.) is carried out. The main directions in the treatment of diabetes in children include diet and insulin therapy.

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Diabetes in children is a violation of carbohydrate and other types of metabolism, which is based on insulin deficiency or / and insulin resistance, leading to chronic hyperglycemia. According to the WHO, every 500th child and every 200th adolescent suffer from diabetes. At the same time, in the coming years an increase in the incidence of diabetes among children and adolescents is projected at 70%. Given the wide distribution, the tendency to "rejuvenation" of pathology, the progression of the course and severity of complications, the problem of diabetes in children requires an interdisciplinary approach with the participation of specialists in the field of pediatrics, pediatric endocrinology, cardiology, neurology, ophthalmology, etc.

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In pediatric patients, diabetologists in most cases have to deal with type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent), which is based on absolute insulin deficiency. Type 1 diabetes mellitus in children usually has an autoimmune character, it is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, β-cell destruction, association with the genes of the main histocompatibility complex HLA, complete insulin dependence, a tendency to ketoacidosis, etc. Idiopathic type 1 diabetes mellitus is unknown pathogenesis and more often recorded in persons of non-European race.

In addition to the dominant type 1 diabetes, children have more rare forms of the disease: type 2 diabetes, diabetes mellitus associated with genetic syndromes, diabetes mellitus MODY-type.

The leading factor in the development of type 1 diabetes in children is a hereditary predisposition, as evidenced by the high incidence of familial cases of the disease and the presence of pathology among close relatives (parents, sisters and brothers, grandparents).

However, to initiate an autoimmune process, it is necessary to influence the provoking environmental factor. The most likely triggers leading to chronic lymphocytic insulitis, the subsequent destruction of β-cells and insulin deficiency are viral agents (Coxsackie B, ECHO, Epstein-Barr viruses, mumps, rubella, herpes, measles, rotaviruses, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, and mucositis. .

In addition, the development of diabetes in children with a genetic predisposition can contribute to toxic effects, nutritional factors (artificial or mixed feeding, nutrition of cow's milk, monotonous carbohydrate foods, etc.), stressful situations, surgical interventions.

The risk group that is threatened by the development of diabetes mellitus is made up of children with a birth mass of over 4.5 kg, having obesity, leading a low-active lifestyle, suffering from diathesis, often suffering from it.

Secondary (symptomatic) forms of diabetes in children can develop with endocrinopathy (Itsenko-Cushing syndrome, diffuse toxic goiter, acromegaly, pheochromocytoma), diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis, etc.). Type 1 diabetes in children is often accompanied by other immunopathological processes: systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, periarteritis nodosa, etc.

Diabetes in children may be associated with various genetic syndromes: Down syndrome, Klinefelter, Prader-Willi, Shereshevsky-Turner, Lawrence – Moon – Barda – Beadle, Wolfram, Huntington's chorea, Friedreich's ataxia, porphyria, etc.

Manifestations of diabetes in a child can develop at any age. There are two peaks in the manifestation of diabetes mellitus in children - at 5–8 years of age and in puberty, that is, during periods of increased growth and intensive metabolism.

In most cases, the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children is preceded by a viral infection: epidemic parotitis, measles, SARS, enterovirus infection, rotavirus infection, viral hepatitis, etc. For diabetes mellitus type 1 in children is characterized by an acute rapid onset, often with the rapid development of ketoacidosis and diabetic coma. From the moment of the first symptoms to the development of a coma, it can take from 1 to 2-3 months.

You can suspect the presence of diabetes in children by pathognomonic signs: increased urination (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), increased appetite (polyphagy), weight loss.

The mechanism of polyuria is associated with osmotic diuresis, which occurs when hyperglycemia ≥9 mmol / l, exceeding the renal threshold, and the appearance of glucose in the urine. Urine becomes colorless, its specific weight increases due to the high sugar content. Daytime polyuria may remain unrecognized. More noticeable night polyuria, which in diabetes in children is often accompanied by urinary incontinence. Sometimes parents pay attention to the fact that the urine becomes sticky, and the so-called “starch” stains remain on the baby’s underwear.

Polydipsia is a consequence of increased urinary excretion and dehydration. Thirst and dry mouth can also torment a child at night, forcing him to wake up and ask to drink.

Children with diabetes have a constant feeling of hunger, however, along with polyphagia, they are marked by a decrease in body weight. This is due to the energy starvation of the cells, caused by the loss of glucose in the urine, impaired utilization, and an increase in the process of proteolysis and lipolysis under conditions of insulin deficiency.

Already in the debut of diabetes in children, dry skin and mucous membranes, the occurrence of dry seborrhea on the scalp, peeling of the skin on the palms and soles, stickiness in the corners of the mouth, candidal stomatitis, etc. can be observed. vulvitis in girls and balanoposthitis in boys. If the debut of diabetes in a girl falls on puberty, it can lead to disruption of the menstrual cycle.

When diabetes mellitus decompensation in children develop cardiovascular disorders (tachycardia, functional noise), hepatomegaly.

The course of diabetes in children is extremely labile and is characterized by a tendency to develop dangerous states of hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis and ketoacidosis coma.

Hypoglycemia develops due to a sharp decrease in blood sugar caused by stress, excessive exercise, insulin overdose, poor diet, etc. Hypoglycemic coma is usually preceded by lethargy, weakness, sweating, headache, a feeling of strong hunger, tremors in the limbs. If you do not take measures to increase blood sugar, the child develop convulsions, arousal, followed by depression of consciousness. When hypoglycemic coma body temperature and blood pressure are normal, there is no smell of acetone from the mouth, the skin is wet, the content of glucose in the blood

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a precursor of the terrible complication of diabetes in children - ketoacidosis coma. Its occurrence is due to increased lipolysis and ketogenesis with the formation of an excess of ketone bodies. The child grows weak, drowsy, decreases appetite, join nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, there is a smell of acetone from the mouth. In the absence of adequate therapeutic measures ketoacidosis for several days can turn into a ketoacidotic coma. This condition is characterized by complete loss of consciousness, arterial hypotension, frequent and weak pulse, uneven breathing, anuria. Laboratory criteria for ketoacidotic coma in children with diabetes mellitus are hyperglycemia> 20 mmol / l, acidosis, glycosuria, acetonuria.

More rarely, with neglected or uncorrected diabetes mellitus in children, hyperosmolar or lactate-cidemic (lactic acid) coma may develop.

The development of diabetes in childhood is a serious risk factor for the occurrence of a number of long-term complications: diabetic microangiopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, retinopathy, cataracts, early atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, chronic renal failure, etc.

In identifying diabetes, an important role belongs to the district pediatrician, who regularly observes the child. At the first stage, the presence of classic symptoms of the disease (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagy, weight loss) and objective signs should be taken into account. On examination of children, attention is paid to the presence of diabetic blush on the cheeks, forehead and chin, raspberry tongue, reduction of skin turgor. Children with characteristic manifestations of diabetes should be referred for further management to the pediatric endocrinologist.

The final statement of the diagnosis is preceded by a thorough laboratory examination of the child. The main studies in diabetes in children include determining blood sugar levels (including through daily monitoring), insulin, C-peptide, proinsulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose tolerance, KOS blood, in urine - glucose and ketone tel. The most important diagnostic criteria for diabetes in children are hyperglycemia (higher than 5.5 mmol / l), glucosuria, ketonuria, acetonuria. The definition of Ab to pancreatic β-cells and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is shown for the purpose of preclinical detection of type 1 diabetes mellitus in groups with a high genetic risk or for diagnosing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Diabetes mellitus and glutamate decarboxylase. Ultrasonography is performed to assess the structural state of the pancreas.

Differential diagnosis of diabetes in children is carried out with acetonemic syndrome, diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic diabetes. Ketoacidosis and who needs to be distinguished from acute abdomen (appendicitis, peritonitis, intestinal obstruction), meningitis, encephalitis, brain tumor.

The main components of the treatment of type 1 diabetes in children are insulin therapy, diet, proper lifestyle and self-control. Dietary measures include the exclusion of sugars from the diet, the restriction of carbohydrates and animal fats, fractional food 5-6 times a day, taking into account individual energy needs. An important aspect of the treatment of diabetes in children is competent self-control: awareness of the severity of their disease, the ability to determine the level of glucose in the blood, adjust the insulin dose, taking into account the glycemia level, physical activity, errors in nutrition. Teaching parents and children with diabetes mellitus self-control techniques is conducted in “diabetes schools”.

Replacement therapy for children with diabetes mellitus is carried out with human genetically engineered insulin preparations and their analogues. The dose of insulin is selected individually, taking into account the degree of hyperglycemia and the age of the child. Base-bolus insulin therapy has proven itself well in children’s practice, with the introduction of prolonged insulin in the morning and evening to correct baseline hyperglycemia and the additional use of short-acting insulin before each main meal for correcting postprandial hyperglycemia.

The modern method of insulin therapy in children with diabetes mellitus is the insulin pump, which allows insulin to be administered in a continuous mode (imitation of basal secretion) and bolus mode (imitation of postmentalative secretion).

The most important components of the treatment of type 2 diabetes in children are diet therapy, sufficient physical activity, and oral glucose-lowering medications.

With the development of diabetic ketoacidosis, infusion rehydration is necessary, the introduction of an additional dose of insulin, taking into account the level of hyperglycemia, correction of acidosis. If a hypoglycemic condition develops, you must urgently give the child sugar-containing products (sugar cube, juice, sweet tea, caramel), if the child is unconscious — intravenous glucose or intramuscular glucagon is needed.

The quality of life of children with diabetes is largely determined by the efficiency of disease compensation. If you follow the recommended diet, regimen, therapeutic measures life expectancy corresponds to the average in the population. In the case of gross violations of doctor's prescriptions, diabetes decompensation, specific diabetic complications develop early. Patients with diabetes are observed for life by an endocrinologist, a diabetologist.

Vaccination of children with diabetes mellitus is carried out in the period of clinical and metabolic compensation, in this case it does not cause deterioration during the underlying disease.

Specific prevention of diabetes in children is not developed. It is possible to predict the risk of disease and identify prediabetes on the basis of an immunological examination. In children at risk of developing diabetes, it is important to maintain optimal weight, daily physical activity, improve immunoresistance, treat comorbidities.

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is accompanied by an increase in blood sugar levels, resulting from absolute or relative insufficiency of the hormone insulin.
Insulin produces special cells of the pancreas, called β-cells. Under the influence of any internal or external factors, the work of these cells is disturbed and insulin deficiency, that is, diabetes mellitus, occurs.

The main role in the development of diabetes is played by a genetic factor - in most cases, this disease is inherited.

  • The development of diabetes mellitus type I is based on genetic predisposition along the recessive pathway. Moreover, this process is often autoimmune (i.e., the immune system damages β-cells, as a result of which they lose their ability to produce insulin). Identified antigens predisposing to diabetes. With a certain combination of them dramatically increases the risk of developing the disease. This type of diabetes is often combined with some other autoimmune processes (autoimmune thyroiditis, toxic goiter, rheumatoid arthritis).
  • Type II diabetes mellitus is also inherited, but by the dominant path. At the same time, insulin production does not stop, but decreases sharply, or the body loses the ability to recognize it.

In case of genetic predisposition to type I diabetes, viral infection (parotitis, rubella, Coxsackie, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus) is the main provocative factor. Also risk factors are:

  • family history (if among close relatives there are cases of this disease, then the probability of getting sick in a person is higher, but still very far from 100%),
  • Belonging to the Caucasoid race (the risk of becoming ill among the representatives of this race is much higher than that of Asians, Hispanics or blacks),
  • the presence of antibodies to β-cells in the blood.

There are much more factors predisposing to type II diabetes. However, the presence of even all of them does not guarantee the development of the disease. However, the more of these factors in a particular person, the higher the likelihood that he will become ill.

  • Metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance syndrome) and obesity. Since adipose tissue is the site of the formation of a factor that inhibits insulin synthesis, diabetes in overweight people is more than likely.
  • Pronounced atherosclerosis. The risk of developing the disease increases if the level of "good" cholesterol (HDL) in venous blood is less than 35 mg / dL, and the level of triglycerides is more than 250 mg / dL.
  • Arterial hypertension and vascular diseases (stroke, heart attack) in the anamnesis.
  • A history of diabetes, first occurred during pregnancy, or the birth of a child weighing more than 3.5 kg.
  • In the history of polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • Elderly age.
  • The presence of diabetes mellitus in close relatives.
  • Chronic stress.
  • Lack of physical activity.
  • Chronic diseases of the pancreas, liver or kidneys.
  • Taking certain medications (steroid hormones, thiazide diuretics).

Children suffer mainly from type I diabetes. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child of this serious disease include:

  • genetic predisposition (heredity),
  • body weight of a newborn over 4.5 kg,
  • frequent viral diseases
  • reduced immunity
  • metabolic diseases (hypothyroidism, obesity).

A patient with diabetes must be supervised by an endocrinologist. Consultation of a neurologist, a cardiologist, an ophthalmologist, a vascular surgeon is necessary to diagnose the complications of diabetes. To clarify the question, what is the risk of diabetes in an unborn child, when planning a pregnancy, parents who have cases of this disease in their families should visit genetics.

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This disease is one of the most common pathologies of the endocrine system. It is characterized by the fact that the body has problems with the production of the hormone insulin, which helps break down glucose in the blood.

For the production of an important hormone responsible pancreatic cells. In the case of pathologies of this body, insulin production decreases, or stops completely. Sugar accumulates in the blood, which leads to a sharp increase in its level and, thus, there is a threat of serious consequences for the child's body.

To protect your child from the occurrence of this unpleasant disease, any parent must know why it may occur. With all the necessary information, it is possible to take preventive measures in time to preserve children's health. Of course, there is a factor that influences the development of the disease, like heredity. But in this case, with the right preventive measures, the onset of the disease can be postponed for many years.

Diabetes mellitus is divided into two types: insulin-independent type of the disease and insulin-dependent. Children are most often diagnosed with an insulin-dependent species, called Type I. This disease is lifelong and has its own characteristics in childhood. This is due to the fact that the pancreas in children has very small sizes. By age 12, it reaches a weight of about 50 grams. All metabolic processes in the body of a child proceed much faster than in an adult. The whole process of insulin production in the body is adjusted only to 5 years. That is why more often children aged 5 to 12 years old are exposed to diabetes. For children with poor heredity, this period is critical. Since it is in childhood that the organism is formed, the earlier the child develops the disease, the harder it will be and its consequences will be more serious.

The causes of diabetes in children can be varied. There are a number of both external and internal factors that can trigger the development of this disease in a child. The most common reasons why this disease appears in childhood are:

  • heredity,
  • poor nutrition,
  • disturbed diet
  • catarrhal diseases or severe viral diseases.

If the family does not cultivate proper nutrition, and the child consumes sweets, flour products and chocolate, that is, easily digestible carbohydrates, the load on the pancreas in the child’s body increases significantly. Gradually, this leads to the depletion of pancreatic cells. As a result, the amount of self-produced insulin gradually decreases, and may eventually cease altogether.

The development of obesity naturally leads to the accumulation of excess adipose tissue. And it, in turn, becomes a place where insulin synthesis is actively inhibited.

Frequent colds in a child provoke activation of the immune system. Since immunity must protect the body from viruses and bacteria, with frequent colds, it is constantly forced to produce antibodies. If this process begins to be chronic, the immune system does not stop producing these antibodies even when there is no direct threat to the body. The result of such immune disorders is that the antibodies produced attack the pancreatic cells, thereby destroying it on their own. Being subjected to similar destruction, the pancreas stops producing insulin necessary for the full activity of the body.

Heredity is a factor that can significantly affect the occurrence of this disease in a child. If we are talking about heredity on the part of the parents, especially the mother, then the likelihood of diabetes in a child is very high. It can manifest itself as a very young age, and with time. If, despite everything, the mother who was diagnosed with diabetes decided to give birth, it is necessary to strictly control the level of glucose in the blood during pregnancy.

This requirement is due to the fact that the placenta has the ability to well absorb and accumulate sugar from the mother's blood. In case of its elevated level, there is a regular accumulation of glucose in the tissues and forming organs, which develops in the womb of the fetus. This leads to the birth of a newborn with congenital diabetes.

Infectious diseases carried by a child with a number of concomitant factors can trigger the onset of the disease as a serious consequence.

It is proved that the development of diabetes in a child is affected by such diseases as:

  • viral parotitis,
  • hepatitis,
  • chickenpox,
  • rubella.

Infection of the body with viruses that cause the development of these diseases provokes the activation of a powerful immune defense. Antibodies developed by the immune system begin to destroy the pathogenic virus, and with it the cells of the pancreas. As a result, there is a failure in insulin production.

It is important to note that the onset of diabetes in the form of complications after the transfer of these diseases is possible only if the child has a genetic predisposition.

Low mobility and the absence of at least elementary physical exertion can also cause diabetes. The accumulation of adipose tissue will contribute to the inhibition of insulin in the body. It is also proven that physical activity can enhance the work of the cells responsible for the production of this hormone. A child who is systematically involved in sports, the level of sugar in the blood does not exceed the permissible rate.

What you need to pay attention in time to notice the disease

It often happens that parents get used to recognize the disease and begin to worry only after the manifestation of some specific symptoms. Many can perceive crying, frequent mood swings and irritability as merely a children's whim or a sign of being spoiled. Unfortunately, in some cases, such unreasonable behavior of the child can serve as a signal of early diabetes.

The thing is that with the onset of this disease, insulin is not produced in the right quantity. It does not help the sugar to be fully absorbed by the body. Cells of various organs, including the brain, receive less of the required amount of energy. This causes not only irritability, but also constant weakness, weakness and tiredness of the child.

Of course, these signs are not central to the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and can be caused by other diseases or reactions of the child’s body. But still, since they help to suspect that something was wrong in the health of the child, you should not ignore them. Other changes may also signal the onset of the disease, which parents should also not overlook:

  • the child constantly asks to drink, he fails to quench his thirst,
  • there is increased appetite and simultaneous weight loss,
  • sometimes there is vomiting, the child complains of frequent nausea,
  • there is frequent urination.

With the systematic manifestation of several such symptoms, or at least one of them, it is worth contacting a doctor who will prescribe the necessary diagnostics.

After the disease affects the child's body, it begins to manifest itself with specific symptoms. The most frequent symptoms that accompany the development of diabetes in a child include:

  • long non-healing wounds, frequent fungal lesions of the skin,
  • weight loss and slower growth, problems with physical development,
  • increased appetite and thirst quenched,
  • frequent urination and, in some cases, bed-wetting.

Each symptom has its own causes and becomes a response to insulin deficiency.

Since an insufficient amount of insulin contributes to the accumulation of sugar in the blood, it becomes difficult for the kidneys to perform their filtering function. They are hard to cope with high sugar content. The load increases significantly, and they try to get extra fluid from the body, from which the child develops an obsessive feeling of thirst.

Children may complain of dry mouth, dry skin and peeling is noticeable. This situation is dangerous because without understanding what is happening, a child in large quantities can drink juice, soda and other beverages containing sugar. Such use of harmful liquid in large quantities only exacerbates the development of diabetes in children.

Increased appetite and the feeling of hunger comes from the fact that the cells of the whole body are experiencing energy hunger. Glucose is simply washed out of the body with urine, while not nourishing the body at the proper level. Starving cells begin to send a signal to the child’s brain that there is not enough food and nutrients. The child can absorb food in huge portions, but at the same time the feeling of saturation remains for a while.

Despite the increased appetite, a child who has diabetes will not gain weight. Due to the constant energy hunger, the children's body is forced to look for alternative sources of nutrition. The body can begin an intensive process of destruction of adipose and muscle tissue. Also, a child with diabetes can slow down the growth of the body.

Due to constant thirst, the child begins to consume a large amount of fluid, which, in turn, leads to frequent urination. Bladder with abundant drinking is almost always in a filled state. If during the daytime the child just often goes to the toilet, then at night it becomes difficult for him to control this process.

Bedwetting may be one of the early symptoms of diabetes. It is worth worrying if nightly urination in bed for a child has not been noticed before. When changing bed, it is necessary to pay attention to the urine. It can make a sharp, unpleasant smell of acetone, be sticky to the touch and leave an unnatural white mark after drying.

There is one more symptom that you need to pay attention on time. Since children's urine in diabetes mellitus almost always contains acetone, when urinating, irritation of the external genital organs and urinary tract can occur. Very often, children, especially girls, may complain of itchy crotch.

The consequences of the development of the disease in childhood

One of the main problems of this disease is the ability of diabetes to reduce the immunity of the child. Any infectious diseases can be accompanied by serious complications. For example, a banal cold can flow into pneumonia. Any scratches, abrasions, cuts and wounds may not heal for a long time. Frequent infection with fungal viruses is possible, because the immunity stops protecting the children's body properly.

Reduced visual acuity often becomes a consequence of this disease. It is associated with energy cell hunger and water imbalance in the body. It is also possible another serious complication, which is known as the "diabetic foot." If the sugar level is not controlled for a long time, irreversible pathological changes in the musculoskeletal tissue, blood vessels and nerves begin to occur in the body. The result is damage to the limbs, up to the formation of gangrene.

  • To protect the child from this disease, it is necessary to regularly take preventive measures. First of all, you need to follow the diet. The child should be fed fractionally, but often, about 5-6 times a day. Of course, the food must be balanced and contain all the vitamins necessary for the growing body.
  • It is not necessary to completely exclude sweets from the diet of healthy children, but the number of such products should be strictly controlled.
  • If a child at an early age is already overweight or has an initial stage of obesity, parents are strongly advised to seek advice from an endocrinologist. If necessary, the doctor will diagnose and be able to provide their recommendations. You can also visit a children's nutritionist who is able to develop a system of not only healthy but also tasty food.
  • Since physical exertion contributes to the dissolution of glucose in the blood and lowers the level of sugar, they should not be neglected. About 2-3 times a week, the child should engage in accessible and feasible exercise.

Regarding infants, especially if at birth their weight exceeds 4, 5 kg or there is a family predisposition to this disease, parents should not forget about the benefits of breastfeeding. If possible, the baby is strongly recommended to be breastfed for at least 1 year.This will help strengthen children's immunity and reduce the likelihood of viral diseases that may later trigger the development of diabetes.

If, for objective reasons, there is no possibility to breastfeed a child, it is very important to approach the choice of alternative food very responsibly. It is necessary to avoid artificial mixtures that contain in their composition the protein of cow's milk. It is proved that it inhibits the work of the children's pancreas, which can result in the cessation of insulin production by its cells.

Such simple preventive measures can reduce the likelihood of a diabetic child, even if the family has a similar tendency. Diabetes, like many other diseases, is much easier to prevent than to live with it for the rest of your life.

What causes diabetes: how does a disease develop in an adult?

Why does diabetes occur, and is it possible to prevent the disease, patients are interested? Chronic deficiency of the hormone insulin in the patient’s body leads to the development of a “sweet” disease.

This is based on the fact that the hormone produced by the pancreas takes an active part in metabolic processes in the human body. In this regard, the lack of this hormone leads to a violation of the functionality of the internal organs and systems of man.

Despite the development of medicine, diabetes type 1 and the second, can not be completely cured. In addition, doctors still can not clearly and clearly answer the question, what is diabetes?

However, the mechanism of its development and the negative factors that can lead to this pathology have been fully studied. Therefore, you need to consider how diabetes develops, and what factors lead to this?

And also to find out why diabetes is related to ENT pathologies, and what symptoms indicate its development? How quickly does it develop in adults and children, and at what age is it most often diagnosed?

The effect of the hormone on carbohydrate metabolism is manifested in the fact that a greater amount of sugar is supplied to the cellular level in the body. As a result, other ways of sugar production are activated, glucose tends to accumulate in the liver, because it produces glycogen (also called a carbohydrate compound).

This hormone contributes to the fact that inhibited carbohydrate metabolism. In the process of protein metabolism, the hormone insulin is an intensifier of the production of protein components and acids. In addition, it does not fully break down the protein elements responsible for building muscle.

This hormone helps glucose enter the cells, as a result of which the process of energy production by the cells is controlled, against the background of which the breakdown of fats is slowed down.

What causes diabetes, and how does diabetes develop? The disease occurs due to the fact that the susceptibility of cells to the hormone is disrupted, or there is a deficiency in hormone production by the pancreas.

With a lack of insulin, autoimmune processes in the pancreas occur, as a result, all this leads to the fact that the islets in the internal organ are disrupted, which respond to the synthesis of the hormone in the human body.

How is the development of the second type of disease? Diabetes occurs when the effect of the hormone on the cells is disturbed. And this process can be represented as the following chain:

  • Insulin is produced in the human body in the same amount, but the cells of the body have lost their previous sensitivity.
  • As a result of this process, a state of insulin resistance is observed, when sugar cannot enter the cell, and therefore remains in the blood of people.
  • The human body launches other mechanisms to convert sugar into energy, and this causes glycated hemoglobin to accumulate.

However, there is still not enough of an alternative way to get energy. Along with this, in humans, protein processes are also disturbed, the breakdown of proteins is accelerated, and the production of proteins is significantly reduced.

As a result, the patient manifests such symptoms as weakness, apathy, disturbances in the functioning of the cardiovascular system, problems with bones and joints.

  1. Olsen B.S., Mortensen X. et al. Diabetes management for children and adolescents. Brochure, publication of Novo Nordisk, 1999.27 pp., Without specifying circulation.

  2. Rumer-Zaraev M. Diabetes. Journal "Star", 2000, № 2.

  3. Bobrovich, P.V. 4 blood groups - 4 ways from diabetes / P.V. Bobrovich. - Moscow: Pourri, 2003. - 192 c.
  4. Therapy of endocrine diseases. In two volumes. Volume 1, Meridian - M., 2014. - 350 c.
  5. Wein, A. M. Hypersomnic syndrome / A.M. Wayne. - M .: Medicine, 2016. - 236 c.

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Be careful

According to the WHO, 2 million people die from diabetes and the complications caused by it every year. In the absence of qualified support of the body, diabetes leads to various kinds of complications, gradually destroying the human body.

Of the complications most commonly encountered are diabetic gangrene, nephropathy, retinopathy, trophic ulcers, hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis. Diabetes can also lead to the development of cancer. In almost all cases, the diabetic either dies, struggling with a painful disease, or turns into a real disabled person.

What do people with diabetes? The Endocrinological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences succeeded in making the remedy a completely curing diabetes mellitus.

Currently, the Federal Program "Healthy Nation" is underway, under which every resident of the Russian Federation and the CIS receives this drug. IS FREE . Detailed information, look at the official website of the Ministry of Health.

The disease of the second type occurs if insulin exposure is impaired. In this case, a condition develops, which is referred to as insulin resistance.

The disease is expressed in that the rate of insulin in the blood is constant, but it does not act on the tissue properly due to the loss of cell sensitivity.

When insulin is not enough in the blood, glucose can not fully enter the cell, resulting in a sharp increase in blood sugar levels. Due to the appearance of alternative ways of processing sugar, sorbitol, glycosaminoglycan, glycated hemoglobin accumulates in the tissues.

In turn, sorbitol often provokes the development of cataracts, disrupts the functioning of small arterial vessels, and depletes the nervous system. Glycosaminoglycans affect the joints and impair health.

Meanwhile, the alternative options for the absorption of blood sugar is not enough to get the full amount of energy. Due to a violation of protein metabolism, the synthesis of protein compounds is reduced, and protein degradation is also observed.

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This causes a person to develop weakness in the muscles, disrupting the functionality of the heart and skeletal muscles. Due to the increased peroxidation of fats and the accumulation of harmful toxic substances, vascular damage occurs. As a result, the level of ketone bodies in the blood increases, which are metabolic products.

Causes of diabetes

The causes of diabetes in humans can be of two types:

Autoimmune causes of diabetes mellitus are associated with impaired immune system. With weak immunity, the formation of antibodies in the body, which damage the cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreatic gland, which are responsible for the secretion of insulin.

The autoimmune process occurs due to the activity of viral diseases, as well as as a result of the action of pesticides, nitrosamines and other toxic substances on the body.

Idiopathic causes can be any processes associated with the appearance of diabetes mellitus, which develop independently.

Stories of our readers

Won diabetes at home. A month has passed since I forgot about sugar jumps and insulin intake. Oh, how I used to suffer, constant fainting, ambulance calls. How many times I went to endocrinologists, but they only say “Take insulin” there. And now the 5th week has gone, as the blood sugar level is normal, not a single insulin injection, and all thanks to this article. Anyone who has diabetes - be sure to read!

Why does type 2 diabetes occur?

In the second type of disease, the most common cause of diabetes is hereditary predisposition, as well as the maintenance of an unhealthy lifestyle and the presence of minor diseases.

Factors in the development of type 2 diabetes are:

  • Genetic predisposition of a person
  • Excess body weight,
  • Improper nutrition
  • Frequent and prolonged stress
  • The presence of atherosclerosis,
  • Medicines
  • The presence of diseases
  • Period of pregnancy, alcohol dependence and smoking.

Genetic predisposition of a person. This reason is the main among all possible factors. If a patient has a family member of relatives who have diabetes, there is a risk that diabetes may occur due to a genetic predisposition.

If one of the parents suffers from diabetes, the risk of developing the disease is 30 percent, and if the father and mother have the disease, 60 percent of the cases diabetes is inherited by the child. If heredity is present, it may begin to manifest itself in childhood or adolescence.

Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the health of a child with a genetic predisposition as carefully as possible in order to prevent the development of the disease in time. The sooner diabetes is identified, the lower the chance that the disease will be transmitted to the grandchildren. You can resist the disease, following a certain diet.

Overweight. According to statistics, this is the second reason that leads to the development of diabetes. This is especially true for type 2 diabetes. With fullness or even obesity, the patient's body has a large amount of fatty tissue, especially in the abdominal area.

Such indicators bring to the fact that a person has a decrease in sensitivity to the effects of insulin on cellular tissues in the body. This is what causes diabetes mellitus most often to develop in full patients. Therefore, those people who have a genetic predisposition to the appearance of the disease, it is important to carefully monitor their diet and eat only healthy foods.

Malnutrition. If a significant amount of carbohydrates is included in the patient's diet and no fiber is observed, this leads to obesity, which increases the risk of diabetes in humans.

Frequent and prolonged stress. Note here the patterns:

  • Due to frequent stresses and psychological experiences in a person’s blood there is an accumulation of substances such as catecholamines, glucocorticoids, which provoke the appearance of diabetes in a patient.
  • Especially the risk of developing the disease is in those people who have increased body mass and genetic predisposition.
  • If there are no factors for excitement due to heredity, then a severe emotional breakdown can trigger diabetes mellitus, which will trigger several diseases at once.
  • This may eventually lead to a decrease in the insulin sensitivity of the cellular tissues of the body. Therefore, doctors recommend in all situations to observe maximum calm and not worry about the little things.

The presence of prolonged atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, coronary artery diseasehearts. Long-term diseases lead to a decrease in the sensitivity of cell tissues to the hormone insulin.

Medicines. Some drugs can trigger the development of diabetes. Among them:

  • diuretic drugs,
  • glucocorticoid synthetic hormones,
  • especially thiazide diuretics,
  • some antihypertensive drugs
  • anticancer drugs.

Also, long-term use of any drugs, especially antibiotics, leads to impaired utilization of sugar in the blood, the so-called steroid diabetes mellitus develops.

Presence of disease. Such autoimmune diseases as chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex or autoimmune thyroiditis can provoke the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. Infectious diseases become the main cause of the disease, especially among schoolchildren and preschoolers who often get sick.

The cause of the development of diabetes mellitus on the background of infection is usually the genetic predisposition of children. For this reason, parents, knowing that someone in the family suffers from diabetes, should be very careful about the health of the child, not start the treatment of infectious diseases and regularly conduct tests for blood glucose levels.

Gestation period. This factor can also cause the development of diabetes mellitus if the necessary measures for prevention and treatment are not taken in time. Pregnancy as such cannot provoke diabetes, meanwhile unbalanced nutrition and genetic predisposition can do their insidious business.

Despite the arrival of women during pregnancy, you need to carefully monitor the diet and not allow excessively carried away with fatty foods. It is also important not to forget to lead an active lifestyle and do special exercises for pregnant women.

Alcohol addiction and smoking. Bad habits can also play a cruel joke with the patient and provoke the development of diabetes. Alcohol-containing beverages kill the beta cells of the pancreas, which leads to the occurrence of the disease.

Draw conclusions

If you are reading these lines, it can be concluded that you or your loved ones have diabetes.

We conducted an investigation, studied a bunch of materials, and most importantly, we checked most of the methods and drugs for diabetes. The verdict is:

If all the drugs were given, then only a temporary result, as soon as the treatment was stopped, the disease increased dramatically.

The only drug that gave a significant result is Dieforth.

At the moment, it is the only drug that can completely cure diabetes. Particularly strong effect Diefort showed in the early stages of diabetes.

We asked the Ministry of Health:

And for readers of our site now have the opportunity
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Watch the video: PCH Type 1 Children - What is Diabetes (April 2020).