The life of a person with diabetes is divided into two periods: before the diagnosis and after it. Unfortunately, the characteristics of the disease dictate compliance with certain lifestyle rules - otherwise the patient risks getting complications that can lead to death.
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The circle of these rules directly depends on the type of disease. This article will discuss what to look for if you suspect a pathology and how to determine the type of diabetes.
What to look for first
Doctors note that diabetes is often diagnosed when a person visits specialists of the most unexpected profiles, for example, an ophthalmologist or a dermatologist. This is often shocking for patients, as most of them are unaware that diabetes can lead to impaired vision or affect the condition of the skin.
The realization that you need to carefully monitor your health and listen to your body, sometimes comes too late. But you can even notice the first signs and even determine the type of diabetes without visiting a doctor. At-risk people need to know that certain symptoms will be cause for concern. Consider what you need to look for when you suspect diabetes, and which of the symptoms will help distinguish one type from another.
How to identify type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes occurs due to decreased pancreatic insulin production. This vital hormone should help the body process and metabolize glucose, but either it is produced in extremely small quantities or is completely absent, which causes an increase in blood sugar and a threat to human health and life.
According to the WHO, every tenth diabetic suffers precisely from the first type of disease. Most often, its victims are children (in a child diabetes can be diagnosed at birth), adolescents and young people. In order to prevent an increase in the level of ketone bodies in urine and blood glucose, they are forced to constantly inject themselves with insulin.
To determine type 1 diabetes at home, you need to pay attention to the presence of certain symptoms, which will be expressed as follows:
- permanent strong thirst
- high appetite (at the initial stage),
- frequent and rather profuse urination,
- fatigue, weakness and apathy,
- weight loss (up to 15 kilograms in 3-4 months),
- the development of anorexia,
- fruity breath (a sign of ketoacidosis is a life-threatening carbohydrate metabolism),
- pain in the stomach
- nausea and vomiting.
The main feature that defines and distinguishes the first type of diabetes is sharp changes in blood glucose levels, which often cause a violation of blood flow and even fainting. In the most severe cases, such a jump in sugar is fraught with a coma, which is why it is important to pay attention to the symptoms of the disease in time and pass the necessary tests as soon as possible to confirm the diagnosis and begin treatment.
How to identify type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes affects people in adulthood, especially those who are overweight. This type of disease differs from the first in that it develops even against the background of sufficient insulin production. But the hormone is useless, because the body's tissues lose their sensitivity to it.
The prognosis for diabetics with the second type of disease is more optimistic, since they are not dependent on regular insulin injections and can get rid of symptoms and the threat of complications by adjusting their diet and exercise volume. If necessary, drugs can be prescribed to stimulate the pancreas and reduce the resistance of cells to insulin.
How are type 2 diabetes determined by symptoms? For a rather long period, they may be poorly expressed or completely absent, so many people do not even suspect their diagnosis.
The main external sign of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) is itching of the extremities and genitals. For this reason, quite often a person finds out about his diagnosis at a appointment with a dermatologist.
A symptom of the disease is also a violation of tissue regeneration processes.
In addition, type 2 diabetes leads to retinopathy, a visual impairment.
Since the disease does not manifest itself at the initial stage, that he is sick, a person in most cases will find out by taking blood tests, after a heart attack or stroke, at the surgeon’s appointment for problems with his legs (“diabetic foot”).
When one of the listed symptoms appears, you need to adjust the food as soon as possible. In a week, improvements will be noticeable.
What tests to take?
Symptoms of diabetes are a signal from the body that the process of sugar absorption is impaired. To confirm the presence of the disease and accurately determine its type, it is necessary to pass a number of tests in order to identify complications or to exclude their occurrence in the future.
The first step in suspecting diabetes is to measure your blood glucose. This procedure can be carried out at home using a glucometer. Normally, fasting blood sugar should be in the range of 3.5–5.0 mmol / L, and after eating - not higher than 5.5 mmol / L.
A more detailed picture of the condition of the body can be obtained through laboratory tests, which include the following.
Urinalysis for ketone bodies and sugar
The presence of sugar in urine is determined only when its level in the blood reaches a value of 8 mmol / L or higher, which indicates the inability of the kidneys to cope with glucose filtration.
At the beginning of diabetes, blood sugar readings can be within normal limits - this means that the body has connected its internal reserves and can cope on its own. But this struggle will not be long, therefore, if a person has external manifestations of the disease, he should immediately undergo examination, including narrow specialists (endocrinologist, ophthalmologist, cardiologist, vascular surgeon, neurologist), who, as a rule, confirm the diagnosis.
A sufficient amount of detailed information on how to determine the type of diabetes allows you to do it yourself and take measures to reduce blood sugar in the shortest possible time. In addition, identifying the disease at an early stage can prevent the occurrence of serious complications.
Differential diagnosis of insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes - how to determine the type of pathology?
As a rule, doctors without special difficulties reveal the presence of diabetes in the patient.
The situation is explained by the fact that in most cases, patients seek help from specialists already when the pathology has developed, and its symptoms have become pronounced.
But this does not always happen. Sometimes patients, having noticed early signs of diabetes in themselves or their children, also turn to the doctor to confirm or refute their fears.
To make an accurate diagnosis, the specialist listens to the patient’s complaints and sends him to undergo a comprehensive examination, after which he makes a final medical verdict.
It is important to be able to distinguish between types of pathology. Read about the features of each type of diabetes below:
- type 1 diabetes. This is an insulin-dependent form of the disease that develops as a result of immune malfunctions, experienced stresses, viral invasion, a hereditary predisposition and an incorrectly formed lifestyle. As a rule, the disease is detected in early childhood. In adulthood, an insulin-dependent form of diabetes occurs much less frequently. Patients suffering from such diabetes need to carefully monitor their sugar levels and use insulin injections in a timely manner so as not to bring themselves to a coma,
- type 2 diabetes. This disease develops mainly in the elderly, as well as those who lead a passive lifestyle or are obese. With such an ailment, the pancreas produces a sufficient amount of insulin, however, due to the lack of sensitivity to hormones in cells, it accumulates in the blood, as a result of which glucose assimilation does not occur. As a result, the body experiences energy hunger. Insulin dependence does not occur with such diabetes,
- subcompensated diabetes. This is a type of prediabetes. In this case, the patient feels well and does not suffer from symptoms, which usually spoils the life of insulin-dependent patients. With subcompensated diabetes, the amount of glucose in the blood is slightly increased. Moreover, there is no acetone in the urine of such patients,
- gestational. Most often, this pathology occurs in women in late pregnancy. The reason for the increase in sugar is the increased production of glucose, which is necessary for the full bearing of the fetus. Usually, if gestational diabetes appears only during pregnancy, the pathology subsequently disappears on its own without any medical measures,
- latent diabetes. It proceeds without obvious symptoms. Blood glucose levels are normal, but glucose tolerance is impaired. If measures are not taken in a timely manner, the latent form may turn into a full-fledged diabetes,
- latent diabetes. Latent diabetes develops due to malfunctions of the immune system, due to which pancreatic cells lose their ability to fully function. The treatment for latent diabetes is similar to the therapy used for type 2 diabetes. It is important to keep the disease under control.
Laboratory tests are needed to accurately diagnose type 1 or type 2 diabetes. But for the doctor, information obtained during the conversation with the patient, as well as during the examination, will be no less important. Each type has its own characteristic features.
The following features can tell about the fact that the patient develops type 1 diabetes:
- symptoms appear very quickly and become apparent within a few weeks,
- insulin-dependent diabetics almost never have excess weight. They have either a thin physique or a normal one,
- severe thirst and frequent urination, weight loss with good appetite, irritability and drowsiness,
- the disease often occurs in children with a hereditary predisposition.
The following manifestations indicate type 2 diabetes:
- the development of the disease occurs within a few years, so the symptoms are poorly expressed,
- patients are overweight or obese,
- tingling on the surface of the skin, itching, rash, numbness of the extremities, intense thirst and frequent visits to the toilet, constant hunger with good appetite,
- no link was found between genetics and type 2 diabetes.
As a rule, patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes do not suffer from acute symptoms as insulin-dependent diabetics.
Subject to a diet and a good lifestyle, they can almost completely control the level of sugar. In the case of type 1 diabetes, this will not work.
At later stages, the body will not be able to cope with hyperglycemia on its own, as a result of which a coma may occur.
To begin with, the patient is prescribed a blood test for sugar of a general nature. It is taken from a finger or from a vein.
In conclusion, an adult will be provided with a figure from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / L (for blood from a finger) and 3.7-6.1 mmol / L (for blood from a vein).
If the indicator exceeds the mark of 5.5 mmol / l, the patient is diagnosed with prediabetes. If the result exceeds 6.1 mmol / l, this indicates the presence of diabetes.
As a rule, about 10-20% of the total number of patients suffer from insulin-dependent diabetes. All others suffer from non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
To surely establish with the help of analyzes what kind of illness the patient suffers from, experts resort to differential diagnosis.
To determine the type of pathology, additional blood tests are taken:
- blood on the C-peptide (helps determine if pancreatic insulin is produced),
- on autoantibodies to pancreatic beta-cells own antigens,
- for the presence of ketone bodies in the blood.
In addition to the options listed above, genetic tests can also be performed.
About what tests you need to take for diabetes, in the video:
For a full diagnosis of the type of diabetic abnormalities, a comprehensive examination is required. If you find any primary symptoms of diabetes, be sure to consult a doctor. Timely action will take control of the disease and avoid complications.
- Stabilizes sugar levels for a long time
- Restores pancreatic insulin production
To learn more. Not a drug. ->
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of the endocrine system, which is based on insulin deficiency, absolute or relative.
The absolute insulin deficiency in diabetes is caused by the death of beta cells, which are responsible for its secretion, and the relative one is associated with a defect in its interaction with cell receptors (typical for type 2 diabetes mellitus).
For diabetes mellitus, the definition of hyperglycemia is the most constant sign that affects the violation of carbohydrate metabolism in the body. When diagnosing diabetes, important symptoms are an increasing level of glucose in the blood and its appearance in the urine. With significant sugar losses, increased urine output leads to dehydration and hypokalemia.
The reasons for the sharp increase in the number of cases of diabetes mellitus are better detectability with active physical examination, a decrease in mortality of newborns from parents with diabetes, an increase in the life expectancy of the population and the spread of obesity.
Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease both for the reasons for its occurrence and for the clinical manifestations and treatment methods. To determine diabetes and make the correct diagnosis, two options are primarily distinguished: type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
The first type of diabetes occurs in the form of destruction of beta cells and leads to lifelong insulin deficiency. Its varieties are LADA - latent autoimmune diabetes in adults and idiopathic (non-immune) form. In latent diabetes, the signs and course correspond to type 2, antibodies to beta cells are detected, as in type 1.
The second type of diabetes develops against a background of reduced or normal production of insulin, but with a loss of sensitivity to it - insulin resistance. One form of this diabetes is MODY, in which there is a genetic defect in the function of beta cells.
In addition to these basic types, there may be:
- Abnormalities of insulin or receptors associated with genetic defects.
- Pancreatic diseases - pancreatitis, tumors.
- Endocrinopathies: acromegaly, Itsenko-Cushing's syndrome, diffuse toxic goiter.
- Diabetes mellitus.
- Diabetes caused by infection.
- Congenital diseases associated with diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes.
After determining the type of diabetes, a study is conducted of the severity of the disease.With a mild form of diabetes mellitus, there are no significant changes in blood sugar, fasting sugar is below 8 mmol / l, there is no sugar in the urine, or up to 20 g / l. dietetics are enough to compensate. Vascular lesions are not diagnosed.
Moderate diabetes is characterized by an increase in fasting glucose to 14 mmol / l, glucose loss in urine per day - up to 40 g, during the day there are fluctuations in sugar levels, ketone bodies in blood and urine may appear. A diet and insulin or pills are prescribed to reduce glycemia. Angioneuropathies are detected.
Signs of severe diabetes:
- Fasting glycemia above 14 mmol / L.
- Significant changes in blood sugar throughout the day.
- Glucosuria more than 40 g per day.
- The dose of insulin to compensate above 60 PIECES.
- The development of diabetic angio-and neuropathies.
According to the degree of compensation, diabetes can be compensated if it is possible to achieve normal blood glucose and lack of it in the urine. Subcompensation phase: glycemia not higher than 13.95 mmol / l, glucose loss of 50 g or less per day. There is no acetone in the urine.
With decompensation, all manifestations go beyond these limits, acetone is determined in the urine. There may be a coma against the background of hyperglycemia.
The first type of diabetes can occur in any age category, but more often it affects children, adolescents and young people under 30 years old. There are cases of congenital diabetes, and signs in people between 35 and 45 years of age have become more common.
Such a course of diabetes is characterized by the destruction of cells that produce insulin due to an autoimmune type reaction. Such a lesion can be triggered by viruses, drugs, chemicals, poisons.
These external factors serve as a trigger for the activation of genes in certain parts of the chromosomes. This set of genes determines tissue compatibility and is inherited.
At the first stage of the disease, antibodies to beta cells in low concentrations appear. There are no clinical symptoms of the disease, since the compensatory possibilities of insulin secretion are not impaired. That is, the pancreas copes with such destruction.
Then, as the destruction of the islets of Langerhans increases, the following processes develop:
- Pancreatic tissue inflammation is an autoimmune insulin. The antibody titer increases, beta cells are destroyed, insulin production decreases.
- When glucose enters the food, insulin is produced in insufficient quantities. There is no clinic, but abnormalities in the glucose tolerance test can be detected.
- There is very little insulin, a typical clinic is growing. At this time, about 5-10% of active cells remained.
- Insulin is not produced, all cells are destroyed.
In the absence of insulin, the liver, muscles and adipose tissue cannot absorb glucose from the blood. In adipose tissue, the breakdown of fat increases, which is the reason for their increased appearance in the blood, and proteins break down in the muscles, increasing the level of amino acids. The liver turns fatty acids and amino acids into ketone bodies, which serve as a source of energy.
With an increase in glucose up to 10 mmol / l, the kidneys begin to excrete glucose in the urine, and since it draws water to itself, there is a sharp dehydration if its supply is not replenished with heavy drinking.
The loss of water is accompanied by the elimination of trace elements - sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, as well as chlorides, phosphates and bicarbonate.
The clinical signs of type 1 diabetes can be divided into two types: symptoms that reflect the degree of compensation of diabetes and signs of complications of its course. Chronically elevated blood sugar causes increased excretion of urine, and associated increased thirst, dry mouth, and weight loss.
With an increase in hyperglycemia, appetite changes, sharp weakness develops, with the appearance of ketone bodies, abdominal pain occurs, acetone smells from the skin and in exhaled air. The first type of diabetes is characterized by a rapid increase in symptoms in the absence of insulin administration, so the first manifestation of it may be a ketoacidotic coma.
The second group of symptoms is associated with the development of serious complications: with improper treatment, kidney failure, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular accident, diabetic retinopathy, polyneuropathy, ketoacidosis, and diabetic coma develop.
Diabetes-related diseases also develop:
- Genitourinary infections.
- Various infectious diseases.
To make a diagnosis, it is enough to identify typical symptoms and confirm hyperglycemia: in plasma more than 7 mmol / l, 2 hours after glucose intake - more than 11.1 mmol / l, glycated hemoglobin exceeds 6.5%.
The occurrence of type 2 diabetes is associated with a genetic predisposition and acquired disorders in the form of obesity, atherosclerosis. The development can provoke severe somatic diseases, including pancreatitis, hepatitis, overeating, especially high-carbohydrate nutrition and lack of exercise.
Disorders of fat metabolism and elevated cholesterol, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease lead to a slowdown in metabolic processes and reduce tissue sensitivity to insulin. In stressful situations, the activity of catecholamines and glucocorticoids increases, which increase blood glucose.
In the second type of diabetes, the connection between receptors and insulin is disturbed, in the first stages of the disease, secretion is preserved, and can even be increased. The main factor aggravating insulin resistance is increased body weight, therefore, when it is reduced, it is possible to achieve normal levels of glucose in the blood with a diet and tablets.
Over time, the pancreas is depleted, and insulin production decreases, which makes it necessary to switch to insulin therapy. The likelihood of developing ketoacidosis in the second type of diabetes is low. Over time, signs of impaired functioning of the kidneys, liver, heart, and nervous system join the typical symptoms of diabetes.
In terms of severity, type 2 diabetes is divided into:
- Mild: compensation only with diet or taking one tablet of the drug per day.
- Moderate severity: sugar-lowering tablets at a dose of 2-3 per day normalize the manifestations of hyperglycemia, angiopathy in the form of functional disorders.
- Severe form: in addition to tablets, insulin is required or the patient is completely transferred to insulin therapy. Severe circulatory disorders.
Distinctive features of type 2 is that the symptoms of diabetes increase more slowly than with the first type of disease, and this type is more often detected after 45 years. General symptoms associated with hyperglycemia manifest similarly to type 1 diabetes.
Patients are concerned about itching of the skin, especially palms, feet, perineum, thirst, drowsiness, fatigue, skin infections, mycoses often join. In such patients, wounds heal slowly, hair falls out, especially on the legs, xanthomas appear on the eyelids, facial hair grows abundantly.
The legs often become numb, numb, there are pains in the bones, joints, spine, weak connective tissue leads to dislocations and sprains, fractures and deformations of bones against the background of progressive rarefaction of bone tissue.
Skin lesions occur in the form of lesions of the folds of the perineum, axillary and under the mammary glands. Itching, redness and suppuration are of concern. The formation of boils, carbuncles is also characteristic. Fungal infections in the form of vulvovaginitis, balanitis, colpitis, as well as lesions of the interdigital spaces, the nail bed.
With a long course of diabetes and with poor compensation, complications arise:
- Vascular pathology (microangiopathy and macroangiopathy) - the permeability and fragility of blood vessels increases, blood clots and atherosclerotic plaques form at the site of destruction of the wall.
- Diabetic polyneuropathy: damage to the peripheral nervous system in the form of a violation of all types of sensitivity, impaired motor function, the formation of long-term healing ulcerative defects, tissue ischemia, leading to gangrene and foot amputation.
- Damage to the joints - diabetic arthropathy with pain, decreased mobility in the joints, decreased production of synovial fluid, increase its density and viscosity.
- Impaired renal function: diabetic nephropathy (protein in the urine, edema, high blood pressure). With progression, glomerulosclerosis and kidney failure develops, requiring hemodialysis.
- Diabetic ophthalmopathy - the development of lens opacities, blurred vision, blurred, veil and flickering points in front of the eyes, retinopathy.
- Dysfunction of the central nervous system in the form of diabetic encephalopathy: decreased memory, intellectual abilities, altered psyche, mood swings, headaches, dizziness, asthenia, and depressive states.
And the video in this article will clearly demonstrate the essence of the emergence and development of diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus is a dangerous disease that annually kills the lives of 2 million people worldwide. And many of these lives could have been saved if the disease had been recognized on time. The risk of getting diabetes is a concern for all of us. Therefore, it is important to determine in time whether a person has diabetes or not.
How to recognize diabetes at an early stage, how to find out if you have a disease? Of course, it is most reliable to go to the doctor and pass the appropriate tests. This procedure unambiguously diagnoses the presence of a disease in a person or dispels all suspicions.
However, doing this in a timely manner is not always possible. In this article, we will examine whether it is possible to determine the presence of diabetes in a person at home, what are the signs and types of tests that can diagnose this disease.
Diabetes is a systemic disease associated with impaired insulin activity and the absorption of glucose by the body. There are two main types of illness. The first type is insulin-dependent diabetes. This type of disease is characterized by a lack of insulin - due to the fact that insulin is not produced by the pancreas, more precisely, by beta cells of the pancreas. Doctors determine the second type of diabetes if there is a violation of the interaction of insulin with the cells.
Diabetes is dangerous by the development of complications such as:
- gangrene of limbs,
- coronary heart disease and heart attack,
- mental disorders
- confusion due to hypoglycemic coma.
The first type of diabetes is also called juvenile - due to the fact that they mostly suffer from adolescents and people under 30 years old. Type 2 diabetes develops mainly after 40 years.
You can recognize a fully developed disease by such signs as:
- frequent urination, especially at night,
- increased thirst
- dramatic weight loss
- smell of acetone from the mouth,
- dry mouth and dry skin
- muscle cramps
- deterioration of the gums, skin and hair,
- slow wound healing
- formation of ulcers, boils and ulcers on the skin,
When examining the tests, an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood and urine is detected, which makes it possible to uniquely determine diabetes. After the disease is diagnosed and the doctor understands its features, only then can the treatment of the disease begin.
The two main types of diabetes develop differently. If the first type of development is usually rapid, and acute symptoms, such as increased thirst and frequent urination appear almost unexpectedly, then type 2 diabetes develops at a leisurely pace. At the first stage, the disease of the second type may practically not appear, and it is impossible to understand that a person is sick. Or, the disease may be accompanied by slightly specific symptoms:
- chronic fatigue,
- weakening of immunity,
- constant feeling of hunger.
However, the patient usually does not understand what is happening to him. And often attributes these symptoms to some other illnesses, neurosis, premature aging, etc.
As the second type of disease develops, symptoms of vascular, kidney and nerve damage increase. This can be expressed in the appearance of signs such as:
- the appearance of ulcers on the skin,
- the spread of fungal diseases of the skin and gums,
- limb sensitivity changes,
- slow wound healing
- severe skin itching, especially in the genital area,
- blurred vision
- pain in the legs, especially during physical exertion and walking.
In men, there is usually a decrease in libido, problems with potency. Women suffer from thrush.
Only after this can typical symptoms of diabetes mellitus appear - increased thirst and increased urination.
Thus, very often the patient is in difficulty. Does diabetes have symptoms such as irritability or headache? It’s impossible to say exactly how to determine diabetes by only external signs at an early stage. It is also not always possible to determine the type of disease. Since such phenomena as, for example, itching, dizziness and fatigue can occur in various diseases, with no increase in sugar.
But there are certain factors contributing to the development of diabetes. Their presence should make a person wary and take measures for an accurate diagnosis. These factors include:
- overweight (to calculate whether your weight is overweight or does not exceed the limits of the norm, you can use a special formula and a table that takes into account the height and gender of the person),
- lack of exercise
- the presence of close relatives suffering from the disease (a genetic predisposition to type 2 disease is scientifically proven),
- the presence of constant stress,
- age over 50 years.
In women, diagnosed gestational diabetes during pregnancy is an additional risk factor.
However, the only way to reliably establish whether the problem is diabetes or something else is to check the blood for sugar. Only with the help of this method, the presence of the disease is determined.
At home, it is possible to detect diabetes with a fairly high degree of certainty. This requires portable tools that diagnose high blood sugar. These products are commercially available in pharmacies and can be used at home.
There are several types of such systems:
- visual rapid tests for checking blood sugar,
- test strips that determine the presence of sugar in the urine,
- portable systems for analysis on glycated hemoglobin.
Currently, glucometers are most widely used. These are devices that allow you to conduct a blood test for sugar at home. The user of the meter will recognize the measurement results within one minute, and sometimes in a few seconds.
The method for measuring sugar with a glucometer is simple. It is necessary to insert the test strip into the device as instructed, and then pierce the finger with a special needle. Blood with a small drop is added to a special area on the test strip. And after a few seconds, the result is displayed on the electronic scoreboard. Results can be stored in the memory of the device.
You can check blood for sugar with such a device several times a day. Most important is measuring your blood glucose in the morning on an empty stomach. However, you can measure the level immediately after eating, as well as several hours after eating. A stress test is also used - measuring sugar 2 hours after drinking a glass with 75 g of glucose.This measurement is also able to detect abnormalities.
Rapid testing is carried out according to a similar technique, however, electronic devices are not used, and the result is determined by the color change of the test strip.
Other devices used for the diagnosis of diabetes are devices for testing glycated hemoglobin A1c. The level of glycated hemoglobin reflects the average concentration of glucose in the blood over the past 3 months. These devices are significantly more expensive than conventional blood glucose meters. The analysis requires not one drop of blood, but several drops that are collected in a pipette.
Interpretation of test results
|condition||Fasting sugar, mmol / L||sugar level 2 hours after a meal, mmol / l||glycated hemoglobin level,%|
If a study using portable tools reveals an excess of acceptable sugar levels, the tests should not be ignored. Seek medical attention immediately. And he will be able to confirm whether the patient is ill with diabetes, or if he has some other disease.
Test strips for checking urine for sugar are best used not for diagnosis, but for monitoring already developed diabetes mellitus. After all, sugar in the urine in the early stages of the disease may not appear. And in some cases, sugar in the urine may appear in the absence of diabetes, for example, with renal failure.
However, it should be remembered that all portable devices do not have the accuracy that laboratory tests provide. Glucometers can either overestimate the true value of sugar by 1-2 mmol / l, or underestimate (which is more common).
For tests, only strips with an unexpired shelf life can be used. It is also necessary to carefully observe the testing methodology. Blood sampling from a contaminated or wet skin surface, blood in too small quantities can significantly distort the result. It is necessary to take into account the error that is characteristic of all devices.
In addition, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish one type of disease from another. For this, additional studies are needed, which are carried out only in laboratory conditions, for example, research on a C-peptide. And the methods of treatment of type 1 disease can differ significantly from the methods of treatment of type 2. Also in laboratory conditions, additional studies can be carried out:
- for cholesterol
- blood, general and biochemical,
- Ultrasound of various organs and blood vessels.
All this will allow the doctor to develop an optimal strategy for combating the disease.
Constant fatigue, intense thirst, and increased urine output may indicate diabetes. Many people do not attach particular importance to these symptoms, although changes are already taking place in their pancreas at this time. When typical signs of diabetes appear, a person needs to take special tests - they help to identify abnormalities characteristic of this disease. In addition, without diagnosis, the doctor will not be able to prescribe the correct treatment. With confirmed diabetes mellitus, a number of procedures are also required to monitor the dynamics of therapy.
This is a disease of the endocrine system, in which the production of insulin or the sensitivity of body tissues to it is disrupted. The popular name for diabetes mellitus (diabetes) is “sweet disease”, since it is believed that sweets can lead to this pathology. In reality, obesity is a risk factor for diabetes. The disease itself is divided into two main types:
- Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent). This is a disease in which there is insufficient synthesis of insulin. Pathology is characteristic of young people under 30 years old.
- Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent). It is caused by the development of the body's immunity to insulin, although its level in the blood remains normal. Insulin resistance is diagnosed in 85% of all cases of diabetes. It causes obesity, in which fat blocks the susceptibility of tissues to insulin. Type 2 diabetes is more susceptible to older people, as glucose tolerance gradually decreases as they grow older.
Type 1 develops due to autoimmune lesions of the pancreas and destruction of insulin-producing cells. Among the most common causes of this disease are the following:
- viral hepatitis,
- toxic effects of drugs, nitrosamines or pesticides,
- genetic predisposition
- chronic stressful situations
- diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, diuretics, cytostatics and some antihypertensive drugs,
- chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex.
Diabetes of the first type develops rapidly, of the second - on the contrary, gradually. In some patients, the disease proceeds secretly, without vivid symptoms, because of which pathology is detected only by a blood and urine test for sugar or an examination of the fundus. Symptoms of the two types of diabetes are slightly different:
- Type 1 diabetes. It is accompanied by severe thirst, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and frequent urination. Patients suffer from increased fatigue, irritability, a constant feeling of hunger.
- Type 2 diabetes. It is characterized by skin itching, visual impairment, thirst, fatigue and drowsiness. The patient does not heal well, skin infections, numbness and paresthesia of the legs are observed.
The main goal is to make an accurate diagnosis. If you suspect diabetes, you should contact a physician or endocrinologist - a specialist and prescribe the necessary instrumental or laboratory tests. The list of diagnostic tasks also includes the following:
- the right dosage of insulin,
- monitoring the dynamics of the prescribed treatment, including diet and compliance,
- determination of changes at the stage of compensation and decompensation of diabetes,
- self-monitoring of sugar levels,
- monitoring the functional state of the kidneys and pancreas,
- monitoring treatment during pregnancy with gestational diabetes,
- identification of existing complications and the degree of deterioration of the patient.
The main tests for determining diabetes involve the delivery of blood and urine to patients. These are the main biological fluids of the human body, in which various changes are observed in diabetes mellitus - tests are performed to identify them. Blood is taken to determine the level of glucose. The following analyzes help in this:
- glycated hemoglobin test,
- C peptide test
- research on serum ferritin,
- glucose tolerance test.
In addition to blood tests, urine tests are also prescribed for the patient. With it, all toxic compounds, cellular elements, salts and complex organic structures are eliminated from the body. Through the study of urine indicators, it is possible to identify changes in the state of internal organs. The main urine tests for suspected diabetes are:
- general clinical
- determination of the presence of ketone bodies,
- determination of microalbumin.
There are specific tests for the detection of diabetes - they pass in addition to blood and urine. Such studies are carried out when the doctor has doubts about the diagnosis or wants to study the disease in more detail. These include the following:
- For the presence of antibodies to beta cells. Normally, they should not be present in the patient’s blood. If antibodies to beta cells are detected, diabetes or a predisposition to it is confirmed.
- For antibodies to insulin. They are autoantibodies that the body produces against its own glucose, and specific markers of insulin-dependent diabetes.
- On the concentration of insulin. For a healthy person, the norm is a glucose level of 15-180 mmol / L. Values less than the lower limit indicate type 1 diabetes, above the upper - type 2 diabetes.
- On the determination of antibodies to GAD (glutamate decarboxylase). This is an enzyme that is a inhibitory mediator of the nervous system. It is present in its cells and beta cells of the pancreas. Tests for type 1 diabetes suggest the determination of antibodies to GAD, as they are detected in most patients with this disease. Their presence reflects the process of destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Anti-GAD are specific markers confirming the autoimmune origin of type 1 diabetes.
Initially, a general blood test is performed for diabetes, for which it is taken from the finger. The study reflects the level of quality indicators of this biological fluid and the amount of glucose. Next, blood biochemistry is carried out in order to identify pathologies of the kidneys, gall bladder, liver and pancreas. Additionally, lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolic processes are investigated. In addition to general and biochemical studies, blood is taken for some other tests. Most often they are handed over in the morning and on an empty stomach, because so the accuracy of diagnosis will be higher.
This blood test helps determine the main quantitative indicators. Deviation of the level from normal values indicates pathological processes in the body. Each indicator reflects certain violations:
- Increased hemoglobin indicates dehydration, which causes a person to be very thirsty.
- When studying platelet counts, thrombocytopenia (an increase in their number) or thrombocytosis (a decrease in the number of these blood cells) can be diagnosed. These deviations indicate the presence of pathologies associated with diabetes mellitus.
- An increase in the number of leukocytes (leukocytosis) also indicates the development of inflammation in the body.
- An increase in hematocrit indicates erythrocytosis, a decrease indicates anemia.
A general blood test for diabetes mellitus (KLA) is recommended to be taken at least once a year. In case of complications, the study is carried out much more often - up to 1-2 times in 4-6 months. UAC norms are presented in the table:
Norm for men
Norm for women
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mm / h
The boundaries of the hematocrit,%
In diabetes mellitus, the most common study is a biochemical blood test. The procedure helps to assess the degree of functionality of all body systems, to determine the risk of developing a stroke or heart attack. In diabetics, sugar levels exceed 7 mmol / L are detected. Among other deviations that indicate diabetes, stand out:
- high cholesterol
- increased fructose
- a sharp increase in triglycerides,
- decrease in the number of proteins,
- increase or decrease in the number of white and red blood cells (white blood cells, platelets and red blood cells).
The biochemistry of capillary or blood from a vein also needs to be taken at least once every six months. The study is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach. When decoding the results, doctors use the following standards for blood biochemistry indicators:
Name of indicator
By hemoglobin is meant the red respiratory pigment of blood, which is contained in red blood cells. Its function is the transfer of oxygen to tissues and carbon dioxide from them. Hemoglobin has several fractions - A1, A2, etc. D. Some of it binds to glucose in the blood. Their connection is stable and irreversible, such hemoglobin is called glycated. It is designated as HbA1c (Hb is hemoglobin, A1 is its fraction, and c is subfraction).
The hemoglobin HbA1c study reflects the average blood glucose over the last quarter. The procedure is often performed with a frequency of 3 months, since so many red blood cells live. Given the treatment regimen, the frequency of this analysis is determined in different ways:
- If the patient is treated with insulin preparations, then such a diabetes screening should be done up to 4 times a year.
- When the patient does not receive these medications, blood donation is prescribed 2 times throughout the year.
An analysis of HbA1c is carried out for the initial diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and monitoring the effectiveness of its treatment. The study determines how many blood cells are associated with glucose molecules. The result is reflected in percentage - the higher it is, the heavier the form of diabetes. This shows glycated hemoglobin. Its normal value in an adult should not exceed 5.7%, in a child it can be 4-5.8%.
This is a very accurate method that is used to detect the degree of damage to the pancreas. C-peptide is a special protein that is separated from the “proinsulin” molecule when insulin is formed from it. At the end of this process, it enters the bloodstream. When this protein is found in the bloodstream, the fact is confirmed that intrinsic insulin still continues to form.
The pancreas works better, the higher the level of C-peptide. A strong increase in this indicator indicates a high level of insulin - giprinsulinizm. A C-peptide test is given at an early stage of diabetes. In the future, you can not do it. At the same time, it is recommended to measure the plasma sugar level using a glucometer. The fasting rate of C-peptide is 0.78–1.89 ng / ml. These tests for diabetes can have the following results:
- Elevated levels of C-peptide with normal sugar. Indicates insulin resistance or hyperinsulinism in the early stages of type 2 diabetes.
- An increase in the amount of glucose and C-peptide indicates an already progressing insulin-independent diabetes.
- A small amount of C-peptide and elevated sugar levels indicate serious pancreatic damage. This is confirmation of running type 2 diabetes or type 1 diabetes.
This indicator helps to detect insulin resistance. Its determination is carried out if there is a suspicion of the presence of anemia in the patient - a lack of iron. This procedure helps to determine the reserves in the body of this trace element - its deficiency or excess. Indications for its conduct are as follows:
- constant feeling of tiredness
- fragility and stratification of nails,
- nausea, heartburn, vomiting,
- joint pain and swelling
- hair loss,
- heavy periods
- pale skin
- muscle pain without exercise.
These signs indicate an increased or decreased level of ferritin. To assess the degree of its reserves it is more convenient to use the table:
Deciphering the results
Ferritin concentration, mcg / l
This research method reflects the changes that occur when the load on the body against the background of diabetes. Scheme of the procedure - blood is taken from the patient’s finger, then the person drinks a glucose solution, and after an hour the blood is taken again. Possible results are reflected in the table:
Fasting glucose, mmol / L
The amount of glucose after 2 hours after consuming a solution of glucose, mmol / l
Impaired glucose tolerance
Urine is an indicator that responds to any changes in the functioning of body systems. Based on the substances excreted in the urine, a specialist can determine the presence of an ailment and its severity. If you suspect diabetes, special attention is paid to the level in sugar of urine, ketone bodies and pH (pH). Deviations of their values from the norm indicate not only diabetes, but also its complications. It is important to note that a single detection of violations does not indicate the presence of a disease. Diabetes is diagnosed with a systematic excess of indicators.
Urine for this analysis must be collected in a clean, sterile container. 12 hours before collection, it is required to exclude any medication. Before urinating, you need to wash your genitals, but without soap. For the study, take an average portion of urine, i.e. missing a small amount at the beginning.Urine should be delivered to the laboratory within 1.5 hours. Morning urine, physiologically accumulated overnight, is collected for delivery. Such material is considered optimal, and the results of its examination are accurate.
The goal of a general urine test (OAM) is to detect sugar. Normally, urine should not contain it. Only a small amount of sugar in the urine is allowed - in a healthy person it does not exceed 8 mmol / l. With diabetes, glucose levels vary slightly:
Sugar level on an empty stomach, mmol / l
Sugar level after 2 hours after eating, mmol / l
If these normal values are exceeded, the patient will need to pass an already daily urine test. In addition to detecting sugar, OAM is necessary to study:
- kidney function
- quality and composition of urine, its properties, such as the presence of sediment, tint, degree of transparency,
- chemical properties of urine,
- the presence of acetone and proteins.
In general, OAM helps to evaluate several indicators that determine the presence of type 1 or type 2 diabetes and its complications. Their normal values are presented in the table:
Missing. Allowed up to 0.033 g / l.
Missing. Allowed up to 0.8 mmol / L
Up to 3 in the field of view of women, single - for men.
Up to 6 in the field of view of women, up to 3 - in men.
If necessary, it is carried out to clarify the results of OAM or to confirm their reliability. The first portion of urine after waking up is not counted. The countdown is already from the second collection of urine. At each urination throughout the day, urine is collected in one dry clean container. Store it in the refrigerator. The next day, the urine is mixed, after which 200 ml is poured into another dry clean jar. This material is carried for daily research.
This technique not only helps to identify diabetes, but also to assess the severity of the disease. During the study, the following indicators are determined:
Name of indicator
5.3–16 mmol / day. - for women
55% of the total metabolic products of adrenaline - adrenal hormone
Under ketone bodies (in simple words - acetone) in medicine is understood the products of metabolic processes. If they appear in urine, this indicates the presence in the body of violations of fat and carbohydrate metabolism. A general clinical blood test can not detect ketone bodies in the urine, therefore, the results write that they are absent. To detect acetone, a qualitative study of urine is carried out using specific methods, including:
- Nitroprusside tests. It is carried out using sodium nitroprusside - a highly effective peripheral vasodilator, i.e. vasodilator. In an alkaline environment, this substance reacts with ketone bodies, forming a complex of pinkish-lilac, lilac or purple.
- Gerhardt's test. It consists in the addition of ferric chloride in the urine. Ketones stain it in wine color.
- Natelson's method. It is based on the displacement of ketones from urine by the addition of sulfuric acid. As a result, acetone with salicylic aldehyde forms a red compound. The color intensity is measured photometrically.
- Rapid tests. This includes special diagnostic strips and kits for the rapid determination of ketones in urine. Such agents include sodium nitroprusside. After immersing a tablet or strip in urine, it turns purple. Its intensity is determined by the standard color scale that goes in the set.
You can check the level of ketone bodies even at home. To control the dynamics, it is better to buy several test strips at once. Next, you need to collect morning urine, passing a small amount at the beginning of urination. Then the strip is lowered into urine for 3 minutes, after which the color is compared with the scale that comes with the kit. The test shows an acetone concentration of 0 to 15 mmol / L. You won’t be able to get exact numbers, but you can determine the approximate value from the color. A critical situation is when the shade on the strip is purple.
In general, urine collection is carried out as for general analysis. The norm of ketone bodies is their complete absence. If the result of the study is positive, then the amount of acetone is an important criterion. Depending on this, the diagnosis is also determined:
- With a small amount of acetone in the urine, ketonuria is detected - the presence of ketones only in urine.
- At a ketone level of 1 to 3 mmol / L, ketonemia is diagnosed. With it, acetone is also found in the blood.
- If the ketone level is exceeded, 3 mmol / L, the diagnosis is ketoacidosis in diabetes mellitus. This is a violation of carbohydrate metabolism due to insulin deficiency.
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease characterized by an increase in blood glucose due to a lack of insulin. The pancreas no longer produces insulin, which is involved in the processing of sugar into glucose. As a result, sugar accumulates in the blood, and is excreted through the kidneys with urine. Together with sugar, a large amount of water is excreted from the body. Thus, the concentration of sugar in the blood increases, but there is a lack of these substances in the tissues of organs.
It is usually easy to identify the pathology, because many patients turn to the endocrinologist late, when the clinical picture is already expressed. And only occasionally people go to the doctor after detecting the early symptoms of the disease. How to determine the type of diabetes and what symptoms to pay attention to will be discussed further.
If you suspect diabetes, consult an endocrinologist who will conduct a series of studies. Blood tests will help to detect glucose levels, because this is the most important indicator of health for diabetics. Patients donate blood for research, so that the doctor assesses the state of carbohydrate metabolism.
To obtain reliable results, first determine the concentration of sugar, and then conduct a blood sample with sugar load (glucose tolerance test).
The results of the analysis are presented in the table:
|Analysis time||Capillary blood||Deoxygenated blood|
|On empty stomach||about 5.5||up to 6.1|
|After eating or taking glucose solution||around 7.8||up to 7.8|
|On empty stomach||about 6.1||up to 7|
|After eating food or soluble glucose||about 11.1||until 11.1|
|On empty stomach||from 6.1 and more||from 7|
|After a meal or glucose||more than 11.1||from 11.1|
After the above studies, there is a need to identify the following indicators:
- Baudouin coefficient is the ratio of glucose concentration 60 minutes after the glucose tolerance test to the amount of glucose in the blood on an empty stomach. The normal rate is 1.7.
- Rafalsky coefficient - the ratio of glucose (120 minutes after sugar load) to sugar concentration. Normally, this value does not exceed 1.3.
Determining these two values will help establish an accurate diagnosis.
Type 1 disease is insulin-dependent, has an acute course and is accompanied by severe metabolic disorders. An autoimmune or viral pancreatic lesion causes an acute shortage of insulin in the blood. Because of this, in some cases, a diabetic coma or acidosis occurs, in which the acid-base balance is disturbed.
This condition is determined by the following signs:
- xerostomia (drying out of the oral mucosa),
- thirst, a person can drink up to 5 liters of fluid in 24 hours,
- increased appetite
- frequent urination (including at night),
- pronounced weight loss
- general weakness
- itching of the skin.
The immunity of a child or adult is weakened, the patient becomes vulnerable to infectious diseases. In addition, visual acuity is reduced, in adults, sexual desire is reduced.
Insulin-independent diabetes is characterized by insufficient secretion of insulin and a decrease in the activity of ß cells that produce this hormone. The disease occurs due to the genetic immunity of tissues to the effects of insulin.
The disease is most often detected in people over 40 years old with excess weight, the symptoms appear gradually. Untimely diagnosis threatens vascular complications.
The following symptoms should be considered to determine type 2 diabetes:
- short-term memory disorders
- thirst, the patient drinks up to 5 liters of water,
- rapid urination at night,
- wounds do not heal for a long time,
- itchy skin
- infectious diseases of fungal origin,
- fast fatiguability.
The following patients are at risk:
- Genetic predisposition to diabetes,
- Women who have given birth to babies weighing 4 kg and higher with glucose during pregnancy.
The presence of such problems indicates that you need to constantly monitor blood sugar.
Doctors distinguish the following types of disease:
- Gestational is a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy. Due to a lack of insulin, the sugar concentration increases. Pathology passes independently after childbirth.
- Latent (Lada) is an intermediate form of the disease, which is often disguised as its 2 type. This is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by the destruction of beta cells by their own immunity. Patients can go without insulin for a long time. For treatment, drugs for type 2 diabetics are used.
- A latent or sleeping form of the disease is characterized by normal blood glucose. Glucose tolerance is impaired. After glucose loading, the sugar level slowly decreases. Diabetes may occur in 10 years. Specific therapy is not required, but the doctor must constantly monitor the patient's condition.
- In labile diabetes, hyperglycemia (an increase in sugar concentration) is replaced by hypoglycemia (a decrease in glucose level) throughout the day. This type of disease is often complicated by ketoacidosis (metabolic acidosis), which transforms into a diabetic coma.
- Decompensated. The disease is characterized by a high sugar content, the presence of glucose and acetone in the urine.
- Subcompensated. The sugar concentration is increased, acetone is absent in urine, part of the glucose goes out through the urinary tract.
- Diabetes insipidus. For this pathology, a characteristic deficiency of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone). This form of the disease is characterized by sudden and abundant urine output (from 6 to 15 liters), thirst at night. In patients, appetite decreases, weight decreases, weakness, irritability, etc.
If there are pronounced signs, a blood test is performed, if it shows an increased concentration of glucose, then the doctor diagnoses diabetes and carries out treatment. A diagnosis cannot be made without characteristic symptoms. This is because hyperglycemia can occur due to an infectious disease, trauma or stress. In this case, the sugar level is normalized independently without therapy.
These are the main indications for additional research.
PGTT is a glucose tolerance test. To do this, first examine the patient’s blood taken on an empty stomach. And then the patient drinks an aqueous glucose solution. After 120 minutes, blood is again taken for examination.
Many patients are interested in the question of what results can be obtained on the basis of this test and how to decipher them. The result of PGTT is the blood sugar level after 120 minutes:
- 7.8 mmol / l - glucose tolerance is normal,
- 11.1 mmol / l - tolerance is impaired.
In the absence of symptoms, the study is carried out 2 more times.
According to statistics, about 20% of patients suffer from type 1 disease, all other type 2 diabetics. In the first case, pronounced symptoms appear, the ailment begins abruptly, excess weight is absent, in the second - the symptoms are not so acute, patients are overweight people from 40 years and older.
Any type of diabetes can be detected on the following tests:
- a c-peptide test will determine if ß cells produce insulin,
- autoimmune antibody test,
- analysis on the level of ketone bodies,
- genetic diagnosis.
To identify what type of diabetes a patient has, doctors pay attention to the following points:
|1 type||2 type|
|Age of patient|
|less than 30 years||from 40 years and more|
|underweight||overweight in 80% of cases|
|Course of the disease|
|there are periods of exacerbation||stable|
|Predisposition to ketoacidosis|
|high||moderate, the risk increases with injuries, surgery, etc.|
|glucose concentration is high, ketone bodies are present||high sugar, moderate ketone content|
|glucose with acetone||glucose|
|C-peptide in blood plasma|
|low level||moderate amount, but often increased, with prolonged illness decreases|
|Antibodies to? -Cells|
|detected in 80% of patients in the first 7 days of the disease||are absent|
Type 2 diabetes is very rarely complicated by diabetic coma and ketoacidosis. For treatment, tablet preparations are used, in contrast to a type 1 disease.
This ailment affects the condition of the whole organism, immunity is weakened, colds, pneumonia often develop. Infections of the respiratory organs have a chronic course. With diabetes, the likelihood of developing tuberculosis increases, these diseases aggravate each other.
The secretion of digestive enzymes that the pancreas produces is reduced, and the gastrointestinal tract is disrupted. This is because diabetes damages the blood vessels that saturate it with nutrients and the nerves that control the digestive tract.
Diabetics increase the likelihood of infections of the urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder, etc.). This is because patients with weakened immunity develop diabetic neuropathy. In addition, pathogens develop due to the increased glucose content in the body.
Patients at risk should be attentive to health and, if characteristic symptoms occur, consult an endocrinologist. The tactics for treating type 1 and type 2 diabetes are different. The doctor will help to establish a diagnosis and prescribe competent treatment. In order to avoid complications, the patient must strictly follow medical advice.
Diabetes mellitus is a fairly common disease that has an exchange nature. The diagnosis is based on the fact that a malfunction occurs in the human body, leading to a fascination with the level of glucose in the body. This is explained by the fact that insulin is produced in insufficient quantities and its production should not occur.
Many people with diabetes do not even suspect this, because the symptoms are usually not very pronounced at an early stage of the disease. In order to protect yourself, determine the type of ailment and get recommendations from an endocrinologist, it is important to take a blood and urine test in time to determine your diabetes.
Those who have never encountered a disease should still know the main symptoms of the onset of the disease in order to respond to them in a timely manner and protect themselves.
The first signs of type 2 diabetes are:
- feeling of thirst
- weight loss
- frequent urination
At risk for type 1 diabetes are children whose parents were exposed to the disease or had viral infections. In a child, weight loss and thirst indicate damage to the normal functional of the pancreas. However, the earliest symptoms with this diagnosis are:
- desire to eat a lot of sweets,
- constant hunger
- the appearance of headaches
- the occurrence of skin diseases,
- deterioration in visual acuity.
In men and women, diabetes is the same. It provokes its appearance inactive lifestyle, overweight, malnutrition. To protect yourself and start the rehabilitation process in time, it is recommended that you donate blood every 12 months to study the amount of glucose in the body.
In order to determine the extent of the disease and draw up a treatment plan in time, specialists can prescribe these types of tests to their patients:
- General blood test, in which you can find out only the total amount of dextrose in the blood. This analysis is more related to preventive measures, therefore, with obvious deviations, the doctor may prescribe other, more accurate studies.
- Blood sampling to study the concentration of fructosamine. It allows you to find out the exact indicators of glucose that were in the body 14-20 days before the analysis.
- The study of the level of destruction, with blood sampling on an empty stomach and after consuming glucose - glucose tolerance text. Helps to find out the amount of glucose in plasma and identify metabolic disorders.
- A test that allows you to determine the C-peptide, count the cells that produce the hormone insulin.
- Determination of the level of concentration of lactic acid, which may vary due to the development of diabetes mellitus.
- Ultrasound examination of the kidneys. Allows you to determine diabetic nephropathy or other pathologies of the kidneys.
- Examination of the fundus. During a diabetes mellitus, a person has a visual impairment, therefore this procedure is important in the diagnosis of diabetes.
Pregnant girls are prescribed a glucose tolerance test to eliminate the likelihood of an increase in fetal body weight.
To get the most truthful result after taking a blood test for glucose, you need to prepare in advance and conduct it as correctly as possible. To do this, you need to eat 8 hours before blood sampling.
Before analysis, it is recommended that you drink exclusively mineral or plain liquid for 8 hours. It is very important to give up alcohol, cigarettes and other bad habits.
Also, do not engage in physical activity, so as not to distort the results. Stressful situations have an effect on the amount of sugar, so before taking blood, you need to protect yourself as much as possible from adverse emotions.
It is forbidden to conduct an analysis during infectious diseases, because in such cases glucose naturally increases. If the patient took medications before taking the blood, it is necessary to notify the attending physician about this.
For adult men and women, normal glucose readings are 3.3 - 5.5 mmol / L, when taking blood from a finger, and 3.7 - 6.1 mmol / L when taking a blood test from a vein.
When the results exceed 5.5 mmol / L, the patient is diagnosed with a prediabetes state. If the amount of sugar "rolls over" for 6.1 mmol / l, then the doctor says diabetes.
As for children, the sugar standards in babies under 5 years old are from 3.3 to 5 mmol / l. In newborns, this mark starts from 2.8 to 4.4 mmol / L.
Since in addition to the amount of glucose, doctors determine the level of fructosamine, you should remember its norm indicators:
- In adults, they are 205-285 μmol / L.
- In children - 195-271 μmol / L.
If the indicators are too high, diabetes is not necessarily immediately diagnosed. It may also mean a brain tumor, thyroid dysfunction.
A urine test for suspected diabetes is mandatory. This is due to the fact that, under normal conditions, sugar should not be contained in urine. Accordingly, if it is in it, this indicates a problem.
To get the right results, it is very important to adhere to the basic rules established by specialists:
- Exclude citrus fruits, buckwheat, carrots, tomatoes and beets from the diet (24 hours before the test).
- Hand over the collected urine no later than after 6 hours.
In addition to diagnosing diabetes mellitus, sugar in the urine may indicate the occurrence of pathologies associated with pancreatitis.
As in the case of a blood test, according to the results of checking the urine content, specialists determine the presence of deviations from the norm. If they are, then this indicates anomalies that have appeared, including diabetes mellitus. In this case, the endocrinologist should prescribe appropriate medications, correct sugar levels, check blood pressure and cholesterol, and write recommendations on a low-carb diet.
Urinalysis should be performed at least once every 6 months. This will help in the early stages of diabetes to have control over the situation and respond to any abnormalities in a timely manner.
There is a subspecies of urinalysis, which is carried out according to the method of tehstakanoy samples. It helps to identify emerging inflammation of the urinary system, as well as determine its location.
When analyzing urine, a healthy person should have the following results:
- Density - 1.012 g / l-1022 g / l.
- The absence of parasites, infections, fungi, salts, sugar.
- Lack of smell, shade (urine should be transparent).
You can also use test strips to study the composition of urine. It is very important to pay attention to the absence of delay in storage time so that the result is as true as possible. Such strips are called glucotests. For the test, you need to lower the glucotest in urine and wait a few seconds. After 60-100 seconds, the reagent will change color.
It is important to compare this result with the one indicated on the package. If a person has no pathologies, the test strip should not change its color.
The main advantage of glucotest is that it is quite simple and convenient. The small size makes it possible to constantly keep them with you, so that, if necessary, you could immediately carry out this kind of text.
Test strips are an excellent tool for people who are forced to constantly monitor the amount of sugar in their blood and urine.
If the doctor has doubts about the diagnosis, he can refer the patient to conduct more in-depth tests:
- The amount of insulin.
- Antibodies to beta cells.
- Marker of diabetes.
In a normal state in humans, the level of insulin does not exceed 180 mmol / l, if the indicators decrease to the level of 14, then endocrinologists ascertain type 1 diabetes mellitus. When the level of insulin exceeds the norm, this indicates the appearance of a second type of disease.
As for antibodies to beta cells, they help determine a predisposition to the development of the first type of diabetes mellitus even at the first stage of its development.
If there really is a suspicion of the development of diabetes, it is very important to contact the clinic in time and conduct a series of studies, as a result of which the attending physician will receive a complete picture of the patient’s health status and will be able to prescribe therapy for his quick recovery.
An important role is played by the results of the analysis for glycated hemoglobin, which must be carried out at least 2 times in 12 months. This analysis is essential in the initial diagnosis of diabetes. In addition, it is also used to control the disease.
Unlike other studies, this analysis allows you to more accurately determine the patient’s health status:
- Find out the effectiveness of the therapy prescribed by the doctor when diabetes is detected.
- Find out the risk of complications (occurs with an increased rate of glycosylated hemoglobin).
According to the experience of endocrinologists, with the timely reduction of this hemoglobin by 10 percent or more, there is a chance of reducing the risk of the formation of diabetic retinopathy, leading to blindness.
During pregnancy, girls are often assigned this test, because it allows you to see latent diabetes and protect the fetus from the appearance of possible pathologies and complications.