Diabetes attack

Depending on the reasons that stimulate the development of seizures, they can be divided into appropriate groups:

  • hyperglycemia
  • hypoglycemia,
  • ketoacidosis.

Emergency conditions for diabetes have their own causes and characteristic symptoms. The occurrence of acute situations adversely affects the prognosis of the disease. Untimely initiation of treatment ends with the development of coma, cerebral edema, and death.

It is difficult to predict the onset of attacks. The specific clinic of each option in the initial stages is hidden under the mask of concomitant pathology.

The clinic of each type of diabetes is hidden under the guise of concomitant pathology.

The starting mechanism for the development of metabolic disorders is severe stressful situations, physical activity, and poor nutrition. Of particular danger is the decompensation of type 2 diabetes for the elderly.

Hyperglycemia

It is characterized by a sharp increase in blood sugar. Violation of insulin production by beta cells of the pancreas leads to the development of an attack.

For several reasons, the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism changes, the level of contra-hormonal hormones rises. Such violations lead to overproduction of glucose, to a violation of its utilization.

Reaching a critical level, glucose appears in the urine, polyuria, polydipsia develops. Clinical manifestations depend on the renal threshold for glucose. The lack of fluid replenishment during this period provokes further dehydration of the body, which within a few days ends with the development of hyperosmolar coma.

Hypoglycemia

This type of attack is characterized by insufficiency or low activity of contra-hormonal hormones. With a low concentration of glucose in the blood, mechanisms that activate the sympathoadrenal system are triggered. The occurrence of an attack depends on the concentration and rate of decrease in glycemia.

Induced type of decompensation occurs in patients on the background of taking drugs or alcohol. This variant of hypoglycemia develops with a change in the pharmacokinetics of certain drugs.

Ketoacidosis

This type of attack occurs against a background of severe dehydration. Blood sugar is not absorbed by the cells of the body, an energy deficit is formed. Insufficient blood insulin leads to the use of lipids as an energy source. In the process of fat oxidation, ketone bodies are formed that increase the acidity of the blood, cause severe intoxication of the body.

The development of ketoacidosis is more common with an insulin-dependent variant of the disease. All types of metabolism are violated, a threat of coma and death is created.

Causes of the attack

The etiological factors causing hyperglycemia attacks in diabetes include:

  • excessive exercise
  • kidney failure
  • prolonged stressful situations
  • infectious diseases,
  • high-calorie carbohydrate foods.

A common component for all options is a violation of the recommendations for the use of medicines.

Hypoglycemia develops due to an overdose of injected insulin. Factors contributing to the onset of a hypoglycemic condition are as follows:

  • intensive, long-term loads,
  • violation of the diet
  • viral diseases that reduce immunity,
  • alcohol abuse
  • endocrine disorders.

All patients need an individual dose adjustment of hypoglycemic drugs against the background of the appointment of other drugs. This will help to avoid the development of dangerous hypoglycemia.

The main cause of the attack of ketoacidosis is an insufficient amount of insulin in the blood. Several leading factors that trigger the onset of an attack have also been identified. These include the following:

  • improperly selected therapy
  • non-compliance with medical recommendations,
  • violation of the regime and diet,
  • acute infectious diseases
  • acute vascular pathologies,
  • injuries and surgeries,
  • endocrine system diseases,
  • severe stressful situations
  • renal failure
  • pregnancy.

In most cases, complications can be avoided with strict observance of the rules for patients with diabetes, with timely medical attention.

Symptoms of Diabetes Attacks

The acute complications of this pathology against the background of high blood sugar are characterized by vivid symptoms and relatively rapid development.

An attack of glycemia, neglected, can result in death.

At a glycemia level above 10 mmol / l, the following symptoms appear:

  • constant thirst
  • dry mucous membranes and skin,
  • frequent urination
  • weight loss
  • increased breathing
  • dyspeptic disorders.

Untimely seeking medical help will lead to the development of hyperosmolar coma.

A decrease in glucose to 2.5 mmol / l is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • pallor of the skin,
  • cooling, increased skin moisture,
  • disorientation in space,
  • palpitations
  • motor, speech impairment,
  • changes in behavioral reactions,
  • cramps
  • loss of consciousness.

The clinical picture of an emergency develops rapidly, within a few hours. An attack that is left unattended can result in death.

Ketoacidosis develops gradually. Deterioration is often regarded as a manifestation of other diseases. It is important to control blood glucose.

Signs of ketoacidosis include:

  • severe general weakness
  • fast fatiguability,
  • debilitating headache
  • frequent, noisy breathing
  • dry skin
  • decreased appetite
  • dyspeptic symptoms
  • spastic abdominal pains
  • confused consciousness.

A specific symptom of ketoacidosis is the smell of acetone from the mouth.

A specific symptom due to the accumulation of ketone bodies in the body is the smell of acetone from the mouth. None of the signs of developing complications should be ignored.

First aid

The hypoglycemic state must be stopped immediately. When the first symptoms appear, the patient is given a drink of glucose solution, eat sweets, sugar. The patient is laid on his side to avoid aspiration by vomit. With a convulsive seizure, it is important to prevent a bite of the tongue, to ensure the airway.

Medical care at the prehospital stage consists in the immediate intravenous administration of a 40% glucose solution. Every 30 minutes, sugar levels are monitored. If necessary, the procedure is repeated until there is a sharp warming of the body, clarity of consciousness, normalization of the state. The main task is to eliminate energy hunger, the consequences of which are characterized by disruption of organs, irreversible changes.

Patients with hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis require urgent administration of insulin. At the prehospital stage, with any variant of such an attack, it is necessary to begin dehydration therapy. The administration of short-acting insulin with an injection time stamp is acceptable. Medical personnel provide control and maintenance of respiratory functions, heart function.

Inpatient treatment

Patients with diabetes mellitus are hospitalized in the intensive care unit and intensive care unit. The volume of emergency care is to carry out a set of measures aimed at restoring a deficiency of fluid, electrolytes, and normalizing acid-base balance. Insulin therapy is carried out by continuous drip administration of a short-acting hormone. Symptomatic treatment is carried out as necessary. A course of antibiotics is prescribed.

With a low level of sugars, the glycemic profile, diet, and concomitant pathology are corrected. In severe cases, with the development of insulin shock, special hormone therapy is used. Conduct a thorough examination.

Preventative measures

The objective of preventive measures is to prevent a sharp fluctuation in glycemia. Patients are taught the necessary skills when performing work requiring a long time, as well as physical exercises. By changing the calorie content of the food, the dose of the drug administered, controlling the blood test, you can prevent the development of an attack.

Prevention of ketoacidosis begins with the appointment of the correct doses of sugar-lowering drugs. It is also necessary to strictly follow a diet, timely use of medicines, regularly measure the level of glucose in the blood.

The complex of preventive measures includes compulsory training in the signs of decompensation of the disease, the necessary actions in such cases.

Classification and symptoms of diabetes attacks

An attack of diabetes can be exacerbated and permanent. He carries a serious threat with his signs and consequences. The result of an attack of diabetes can be a seizure of epilepsy, coma. Exacerbation of diabetes is especially dangerous for the patient and requires the immediate provision of qualified medical help. Without timely medical attention, a diabetic coma and death can occur. Seizures are divided into the following types:

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  • hyperglycemia
  • hypoglycemia,
  • diabetic ketoacidosis.

The reasons for the development of these pathologies can be:

  • malfunctions of the pancreas,
  • violation of the recommendations for the use of medicines,
  • unsystematic food intake,
  • excessive physical activity
  • low or high blood glucose.
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Symptoms of the disease

If a person has a hyperglycemic attack of diabetes, he will feel the following symptoms:

  • Surrounding objects look vague
  • Vomiting
  • Paroxysmal abdominal pain.

If you do not provide the necessary assistance with the development of these signs of an attack of diabetes, a person may develop diabetic ketoacidosis.

If the amount of sugar is reduced, the patient is diagnosed with a hypoglycemic attack in diabetes mellitus, the symptoms of which develop for completely different reasons. For example, such a condition can be after an overdose with a medication that lowers blood sugar or with the simultaneous development of a patient with renal or liver failure.

An attack in diabetes mellitus manifests its symptoms if a person was injected with insulin incorrectly. For example, the needle was inserted too deeply and the product entered the muscle.

Such an attack of diabetes has the following symptoms:

  1. Anxiety,
  2. Increased appetite
  3. The surface of the skin turns pale
  4. Excessive sweating,
  5. Nausea,
  6. Strong heartbeat.


If you do not provide first aid to a person, the symptoms will be more intense over time:

  • Man is disoriented
  • Feeling of trembling in the limbs
  • Visual acuity falls
  • Muscle cramps
  • Headache of intense intensity.


As a result, the patient loses consciousness and develops a diabetic coma. In extreme cases, the patient must be urgently hospitalized.

With ketoacidosis, death of pancreatic beta cells is observed, which leads to the complete disappearance of insulin in the body. This extreme condition is typical for type 1 diabetes mellitus, and in type 2 diabetes neglect can end in a coma when the level of insulin in the blood reaches an excessive amount.

Among the symptoms of the disease in men, one can distinguish such specific symptoms: the limbs swell or become numb, tingling is felt in the fingertips, frequent urination, while the wounds heal very slowly.

Other related problems

Such attacks in diabetes mellitus become provocateurs of the development of pathologies of the urogenital symptoms in almost half of patients. This is due to numerous injuries of small vessels due to frequent injections.

In parallel, the patient's blood flow to the pelvic organs decreases. All this in combination leads to problems of potency. In men, sexual desire and erection can sharply decrease, infertility and impotence develop, and there is a lack of orgasm. If the attack of diabetes is not stopped in the early stages of development, not all patients will be able to restore functions.

Other common problems include a violation of the blood supply to the patient's tissues and organs. Such changes lead to memory impairment, headache and migraine.

An attack in diabetes is complicated by obesity in severe forms. Typically, such a diagnosis is made for men with type 2 disease. They have an insulin level that exceeds the required norm, so it does not have time to assimilate the body. As a result, it is deposited in the form of fat.

Such negative changes in human health lead to significant problems in the work of the cardiovascular system. Due to a sedentary lifestyle, obese people suffer from stress on the joints.

Common complications

A diabetic attack is accompanied by the development of other diseases. One of the most common in men is foot ulcer. Due to fragility and clogging of blood vessels, the blood supply to the extremities is completely stopped.

This leads at an early stage to a small inflamed area with the presence of suppuration. After some time, the inflamed area does not heal, but continues to increase in size. There are necrotic areas that lead to gangrene.

Attacks of diabetes can trigger the development of angiopathy, because small blood vessels break, plaques appear in them that interfere with the normal movement of blood flow. The situation is aggravated by improper treatment or later seeking help.

If diabetes develops, the attack is accompanied by an extensive lesion of a large number of internal organs. The eyeball is also on the list of such complications. Due to fragility of the vessels, the patient develops blindness or myopia. To eliminate such consequences is sometimes very difficult and not completely possible.

Attacks and emergency care for diabetes

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A dangerous disease called diabetes has hit the world's population like an epidemic. Diabetes is an insidious disease. An insufficiently cured disease threatens with a severe exacerbation of the endocrine process. Attacks with diabetes are described as a serious complication. Insulin deficiency leads to an increase in glucose concentration; all types of metabolism in the human body are disturbed.

Contributing Factors

Diabetes is characterized by complications that can be acute or chronic. Clinically significant and life-threatening to the patient is an acute condition that requires the immediate assistance of a specialist.

Emergency conditions for diabetes indicate the following types of pathology:

  • hypoglycemia,
  • ketoacidosis
  • hyperglycemia
  • the presence of sugar in the urine,
  • to whom.

The occurrence of violations is facilitated by factors such as:

  • irregular nutrition
  • exercise stress,
  • uncontrolled medication
  • pancreatic pathology,
  • low blood sugar.

Diabetic coma as a complication

Convulsive twitching in the muscles of the legs occurs at night. At the heart of a seizure in diabetes mellitus are disturbances in the functioning of the spinal cord.

The patient feels growing weakness, pain, emaciation. In the first stages of the disease, the cramps are short-lived, begin on the calf muscles.

Seizures indicate changes in peripheral blood vessels. The patient feels goosebumps, tingling in the muscles, turning into cramps. Acidosis phenomena contribute to increased muscle excitability.

With the development of diabetes, the body loses its ability to maintain the necessary level of glucose in the blood. Changes in blood plasma cause fluid loss by cells, coma develops, and disturbances in the exchange of electrolytes.

Sugar is excreted in the urine, the level of acetone and ketone elements in the blood rises. Patients feel increased thirst, dry mouth, polyuria. Diabetics suffers from itchy skin, appetite decreases or disappears.

In the subsequent development of coma, symptoms such as:

  • headache,
  • impaired motor function,
  • muscle spasm in the limbs.

The patient has disturbances in the work of the stomach and intestines, vomiting, lethargy, and refusal to take fluid. A complete loss of consciousness develops.

Emergency care for diabetes

In the treatment of paroxysmal conditions of diabetes, an important role belongs to emergency care for the patient. With hyperglycemia, it is necessary to give the victim funds that neutralize the excess acid in the stomach cavity. For these purposes, use mineral water, a solution of soda. The patient is injected with insulin as prescribed by the doctor.

With the development of hypoglycemia, a person's life depends on the speed of first aid.

It is necessary to offer diabetics sugar, juice, glucose in tablets. Then you should check your blood sugar. If the condition worsens, they call an emergency team.

Preventing the development of diabetes complications is the main task of the attending physician and patient. Thanks to joint efforts, it is possible to cope with the disease. Diabetes is a serious problem, it is unacceptable to leave the disease unattended.

The manifestation of the disease

Attacks of diabetes in men and women are manifested equally and are severe emergency conditions. They include: hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma.

All of the above conditions require immediate medical attention.

But before emergencies occur in diabetics, certain signs appear.

Hypoglycemia is characterized by a sharp decrease in glucose at normal blood counts. This condition is preceded by specific manifestations, according to which an attack of diabetes can be suspected. Such symptoms occur most often for no apparent reason, and include:

  • A sharp feeling of hunger.
  • Tremors and tremors of the body, manifested at any time of the day. Especially characteristic for limbs.
  • Speech disturbance, lack of orientation in space.
  • Muscle cramps that can go into convulsions.
  • Sudden tachycardia, dizziness, pallor of the skin.

In rare cases, there is a violation of consciousness, this is due to a decrease in glucose to 2.8 mmol / l and lower. Sometimes a person may faint without any previous symptoms - this is the development of a hypoglycemic coma. It can also begin if help is not provided on time.

Hyperglycemia is the opposite condition, that is, it is described by a high glucose level in the blood. In medical practice, this condition is considered to be from 10 mmol / l. It is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Severe dry mouth. This symptom occurs in all patients in this condition.
  • Frequent urination and increased urine output.
  • Blurry vision.
  • A pungent smell of acetone from the mouth.
  • Paroxysmal pain in the peritoneum.
  • Nausea, vomiting.

With hyperglycemia, the first symptom is dry mouth

The diabetes attack and symptoms are very related and important. If you do not provide first aid for hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis may occur. In this case, the symptoms will increase: the patient will experience severe headaches, incessant vomiting, which leads to dehydration.

Ketoacidosis and diabetic coma are extreme conditions in diabetes requiring urgent hospitalization. Ketoacidosis - the complete absence of insulinase due to the death of pancreatic beta cells. It occurs mainly with type 1. Coma is found mainly in type 2 and is determined by high blood sugar.

Qualified assistance

Emergency conditions for diabetes require a quick and competent reaction of loved ones. To properly understand the situation, you must first measure the level of glucose. The extreme dose is from 14 mmol l and above.

If an attack of diabetes is confirmed, what to do next? Short-acting insulin should be administered immediately, followed by administration after a few hours.

Next, you need to monitor the patient's health and symptoms. He needs to give a lot of fluid, which will normalize the level of alkaline acid environment. If this action did not have the desired effect, the patient is urgently hospitalized.

First aid for diabet yourdIt takes to relieve unpleasant symptoms.

If the sugar level is low, you need to give the patient sweet tea or a little white bread, which will increase this figure.

After this, the patient may still have some time weakness and confusion, so you should not forget about calling the emergency team.

When first aid for diabetes is provided, the patient must strictly follow the advice of the attending physician:

  1. The amount of physical activity required
  2. Drink plenty of fluids
  3. The right diet.


Emergency care for diabetes will be needed if a person begins to lose consciousness.

So what to do with an attack? The first is to call specialists and inject the patient with glucagen intramuscularly. Then the person should sit on his left side, and put a wooden stick in his teeth so as not to bite his tongue. Constantly clean the oral cavity of vomit.

Rubric “Diabetes - what is it?”

It is useful for each of us to know what symptoms indicate the presence of diabetes, how to detect metabolic disorders at the debut stage of their occurrence, and what preventive measures exist for this disease.

This section contains articles explaining what diabetes is, what is the difference between the manifestations of the disease in women, men, young and old people. There are articles on the general principles of the functioning of the human body: useful information helps to understand why failures occur in physiological processes and how to avoid endocrine pathologies.

From the articles you will receive the necessary knowledge for people with diabetes - information on diet, medicine, lifestyle, physical activity, disease control and its complications. This information will help patients maintain a stable state and avoid the serious consequences of the disease.

Subject to all medical recommendations, diabetics, despite a number of significant limitations, can live a full life, work, travel and enjoy family happiness.

The risk groups for this disease include many categories of people - elderly, overweight, leading an inactive lifestyle, pregnant women, lovers of sweets and beer, smokers, office workers and motorists. By and large, any person has a risk of developing diabetes if he does not pay attention to the nature of his diet, does not engage in sports, does not monitor the level of glucose in the blood.

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Diabetes mellitus is one of the common and dangerous human diseases. Doctors all over the world regret the terrifying fact - the number of people with impaired carbohydrate metabolism is increasing annually. According to WHO forecasts, by 2030 the number of patients with diabetes will double and reach 500 million people. Moreover, most of the patients will be people of working age.

It is useful for each of us to know what symptoms indicate the presence of diabetes, how to detect metabolic disorders at the debut stage of their occurrence, and what preventive measures exist for this disease.

This section contains articles explaining what diabetes is, what is the difference between the manifestations of the disease in women, men, young and old people. There are articles on the general principles of the functioning of the human body: useful information helps to understand why failures occur in physiological processes and how to avoid endocrine pathologies.

From the articles you will receive the necessary knowledge for people with diabetes - information on diet, medicine, lifestyle, physical activity, disease control and its complications. This information will help patients maintain a stable state and avoid the serious consequences of the disease.

Subject to all medical recommendations, diabetics, despite a number of significant limitations, can live a full life, work, travel and enjoy family happiness.

The risk groups for this disease include many categories of people - elderly, overweight, leading an inactive lifestyle, pregnant women, lovers of sweets and beer, smokers, office workers and motorists. By and large, any person has a risk of developing diabetes if he does not pay attention to the nature of his diet, does not engage in sports, does not monitor the level of glucose in the blood.

How to avoid

In order to avoid directly the attack of diabetes mellitus, the patient needs to follow a low-carb diet, daily count calorie intake.

With diabetes, it’s important to control your diet.

Since hyper- and hypoglycemia are serious conditions, they should be prevented in time. In order to avoid hypoglycemia, it is important to establish your diet. Mandatory diet at least 5 times a day, every 4 hours. Physical activity should be moderate. Patients with this disease are advised to record the exact date and time of previous attacks and always have glucose tablets that are very effective for hypoglycemia.

To prevent hyperglycemia, it is also important to monitor the diet.

Pure sugar and easily digestible carbohydrates should be excluded, as for complex carbohydrates, their quantity should be minimal. Diet should include plenty of water and an increase in protein foods. Light exercise will also help reduce sugar. Before using insulin, you must definitely make at least two measurements of sugar. It is much easier to predict attacks and prevent them than to deal with them.

What is hypoglycemia and how to avoid it?

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The danger of diabetes lies in the complications that arise when a patient violates the basic rules of behavior recommended for the disease. One such manifestation is hypoglycemia. This condition is characterized by a drop in the blood glucose level below acceptable values.

What is hypoglycemia?

Glucose is considered one of the main sources of energy in the body. With its low content in the blood, a life-threatening condition develops - hypoglycemia. Most often, people suffering from type 1 diabetes are exposed to it, but it can also occur with type 2 disease. In some cases, this condition may signal other diseases and health problems.

The concentration of glucose in the blood with hypoglycemia is up to 3.3 mmol / L. At such moments, brain cells begin to lack sugar and, in the absence of the necessary measures to replenish its reserves, can die.

Lack of glucose negatively affects the function of neurons, which leads to impaired coordination of movement, loss of ability to think clearly and independently control their own actions.

With these symptoms, it is important to start treatment immediately. Otherwise, hypoglycemic coma may develop, which can even lead to death.

Causes of hypoglycemic condition

People with diabetes need to adhere to all the rules of conduct within their disease, namely:

  • follow a diet, diet,
  • take synthetic drugs that are appropriate for the type of diabetes or inject insulin subcutaneously,
  • control sugar.

Ignoring these recommendations can cause the development of dangerous consequences for the patient, including hypoglycemia.

Factors provoking a hypoglycemic state:

  1. Excess in the body of insulin. Most often this occurs in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes when the wrong dose of the drug is administered.
  2. Large intervals between snacks, or the lack of necessary meals for the body due to the specifics of work, stay in public places. In this case, a person can either unintentionally ignore the first signs of hypoglycemia, or be embarrassed to have a snack in the environment, having made a serious mistake.
  3. The use of alcohol. After drinking strong drinks, the glucose level may sharply decrease after some time if the intake of alcohol was not accompanied by a snack, including a sufficient amount of carbohydrates.
  4. Physical activity was not taken into account. Any workout is accompanied by increased consumption of muscle tissue glucose, so the absence of snacks before or after classes leads to a drop in sugar.
  5. Taking certain medications that can impair sensitivity to the manifestations of hypoglycemia.
  6. The presence of a severe degree of diabetic polyneuropathy, as a result of which nerve cells are affected, sensitivity to hypoglycemia is lost. A person has to check sugar more often with a glucometer in order to avoid a sharp decrease in it.
  7. Inadequate drinking regimen. In this case, the body begins to intensively spend glucose reserves, causing a decrease in its blood index.

Classification and symptoms of the disease

The hypoglycemic state is classified into types based on clinical manifestations, severity, mechanism of its development and origin.

The main forms of hypoglycemia:

  1. Transient (neonatal). This condition often accompanies newborn children and is explained by the lack of glucogenesis at the time of stay in the womb. Premature babies with developmental defects or those born to mothers with diabetes are more prone to manifestations of neonatal hypoglycemia.
  2. Reactive. It is found in obese people when large amounts of insulin are produced in response to excessive carbohydrate intake.
  3. Alcoholic It occurs in people who abuse alcohol with malnutrition.
  4. Nightly. Hypoglycemia occurs during sleep from 2 to 4 hours, when the body least needs insulin.The cause of its development is an overdose of the hormone administered subcutaneously at night.
  5. Alimentary. It appears after surgery on the digestive tract (gastrointestinal tract) due to impaired absorption of glucose in the blood.

From the moment of the first manifestations to the loss of consciousness, a person experiences 3 degrees of hypoglycemia, each of which is accompanied by characteristic symptoms.

Table of symptoms and degrees of hypoglycemia:

EasyThe onset of this stage of hypoglycemia is most often triggered by various stresses, fear, or very serious experiences.The patient at this stage may feel weakness, anxiety and anxiety for reasons unknown to him, a slight feeling of hunger, tachycardia, an attack of nausea or dizziness AverageLack of a snack or laid, according to the time, main mealA person has cold sweat, weakness, trembling in the knees and hands, headaches, ringing in the ears. The patient’s consciousness begins to grow cloudy. Speech disturbance, loss of control over their actions, pallor of the skin become noticeable to people around. HeavyIgnoring symptoms characteristic of a moderate degree of the syndrome, as well as refusal to consume carbohydratesA person loses control of the situation and faints. He may experience cramps, indicating a coma. The patient's body temperature decreases, and the glucose level drops below 2.2 mmol / L

In uncompensated diabetes mellitus, patients are often in a state of hyperglycemia, when the blood sugar level stably exceeds the permissible values ​​(more than 10 mmol / l). Bringing the indicator back to normal can cause symptoms of “false” hypoglycemia in these people.

The body in this case takes the level of glucose that is within the range of 5 mmol / L, which is familiar to healthy people, for a critically low value. The patient begins to consume carbohydrates and thereby again provokes an increase in glycemia.

It is important for people with diabetes to be able to distinguish the symptoms of real hypoglycemia from false manifestations and control their sugar levels to avoid dangerous health effects due to sudden drops and surges in glucose.

First aid

First aid to eliminate the symptoms of hypoglycemia includes 2 stages:

  1. Carbohydrate intake
  2. Glycemia control until its values ​​normalize.

Each bread unit includes 12 g of carbohydrates. With glycemia less than 3.5 mmol / l, it is best to drink sweet juice or tea. Chocolate or cake in this case will not work, because they contain fat, which is absorbed more slowly.

After a quarter of an hour, sugar should be measured using a glucometer. If the glucose level is below 3.9 mmol / L, then you need to use another 1.5 XE, measuring sugar after 15 minutes.

In the absence of an increase in the indicator, the snack should be repeated with a mandatory check of the blood glucose indicator. Alternate snacks with control measurements of sugar should be until the obtained value on the meter does not exceed 3.9 mmol / L.

If a person is no longer able to independently consume carbohydrates and is unconscious, then you need to lay him on his side and call an ambulance. Giving drink or food to people in this condition is dangerous, as they may suffocate. Before the arrival of the medical team, the patient's relatives can inject him with a subcutaneous solution of glucagon, which is sold in a special kit in pharmacies. This will help save a life.

Inpatient treatment

Emergency care to a patient who is unconscious or in a coma consists in conducting drug therapy in a hospital setting according to the following scheme:

  1. A glucose solution (40%) is administered intravenously in a volume of 40-60 ml together with the drug Glucagon. If the glucose level is still below normal, then a dropper is connected with a 5% solution of the same drug until the patient regains consciousness.
  2. An adrenaline injection is used to restore breathing and palpitations.
  3. To prevent cerebral edema, an injection of Magnesia is performed.
  4. With the onset of deep coma, 150 mg of hydrocortisone is administered intramuscularly to the patient.

If consciousness does not return to a person 4 hours after the measures taken, this indicates a high chance of cerebral edema, which can lead not only to disability, but also death.

Consequences for the body

Frequent attacks of hypoglycemia adversely affect the work of all internal organs.

The main consequences:

  • the development of angiopathy of blood vessels,
  • the risk of heart pathologies increases,
  • the brain is disturbed,
  • a stroke and cerebral edema may develop,
  • the patient’s diabetic complications progress
  • coma comes.

Staying in a coma for a long time causes the death of brain cells and can lead to death.

How to prevent a dangerous condition?

You can reduce the risk of a pathological condition using preventive measures, which include the following recommendations:

  • know the methods of stopping this condition and eliminating its signs,
  • be able to choose the dosage of insulin in accordance with the planned amount of XE to be taken,
  • do not exceed the dose of hormone administered,
  • monitor the diet and follow the injection schedule,
  • do not skip the main meals, as well as scheduled snacks,
  • control morning glycemia, as well as a change in glucose after each meal with a glucometer,
  • do not drink alcohol
  • always carry sugar cubes, glucose in tablets or simple carbohydrates to stop hypoglycemia at the first manifestations,
  • be sure to read the instructions for the drugs to be taken in order to know how their components affect the glucose indicator,
  • make additional snacks before starting physical work or playing sports.

Video lecture on the causes and consequences of a drop in blood sugar to a critical level:

Timely snack at the first signs of hypoglycemia will help prevent the onset of a severe form of its manifestation, when the intake of carbohydrates is no longer possible.

It is difficult to help a person who is in a swoon, especially if the people around him are not aware of his illness. It is important to understand that avoiding the onset of hypoglycemia is much easier than eliminating its symptoms.

Low blood sugar in women

When low blood sugar is observed, the symptoms in women can be blurred, but sometimes you can talk about a serious ailment - hypoglycemia. This pathology can be diagnosed with glucose values ​​below 3.3 mmol / L. Hypoglycemia is a dangerous disease, because a person’s brain “eats” sugar and if this substance is not enough for him, then the patient faces a coma. A careful attitude to your health will allow you to recognize the primary symptoms of the disease.

Why is this happening

Symptoms of low sugar in women directly depend on the causes that provoked this pathology. So, for example, the level of glucose in the blood can be low in the morning only because the person did not eat breakfast. Unpleasant symptoms will disappear with the first meal.

The main causes of low sugar:

  • Errors in nutrition. Often, symptoms of hypoglycemia occur in women on a diet. Doctors categorically forbid to refuse completely or reduce the daily intake of carbohydrates. These substances are the main source of energy for the body.

  • Long intervals between meals or hunger. If a person refrains from eating for 8 hours or more, then a blood test will show a low sugar level. That is why many people in the morning feel the symptoms of this pathology. Get rid of them will help breakfast.
  • Sport reduces the sugar level in women in a natural way, therefore, with increased physical exertion, the body needs more carbohydrates.
  • Regular intake of sweets, carbonated drinks, alcohol in large quantities also affects glucose. At first, blood sugar rises sharply, and then quickly drops down.
  • A reduced glucose value can be recorded in diabetics against an overdose of insulin and other drugs designed to lower sugar levels.

These are not all the reasons that cause hypoglycemia.

General symptoms of the disease

Symptoms of hypoglycemia are conditionally divided into several groups. The signs of low blood sugar and the causes of this pathology are interrelated.

Response hypoglycemia is a body reaction in which glucose levels drop after eating. In this case, the symptoms speak of diabetes.

  • irritability, apathy, fatigue even after rest,
  • headaches, clouding of the mind,
  • muscle pain, heaviness in the arms and legs,

  • nausea and bouts of vomiting,
  • sharp visual impairment - veil before the eyes, flies, ripples,
  • increased sweating.

In some cases, when the glucose level fell below 2.75 mmol / L, the patient experiences serious disorders of the nervous system - the patient shakes hands, legs tremble. All these symptoms indicate diabetes, and serious medications are needed to get rid of the unpleasant signs of the disease. After the doctor prescribes treatment, the response hypoglycemia will cease to disturb.

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Causes of low sugar, such as poor diet, long breaks between meals, increased stress cause a lack of energy.

The following symptoms are characteristic of this condition:

  • cramps in arms and legs,
  • a change in gait, the patient loses stability,
  • impaired attention, distraction,
  • weakness, unwillingness to move,
  • speech disorders, it becomes incoherent, resembling a person’s speech while intoxicated.

Such symptoms indicate the need to consult a therapist. The doctor must identify the causes of hypoglycemia and eliminate them. In most cases, this will be enough, and the person will no longer be bothered by this pathology.

In the event that medical care is not provided in a timely manner, the disease can progress, causing serious complications. Doctors also found that over time, symptoms of hypoglycemia only worsen.

The advanced form of the disease is characterized by:

  • lowering body temperature, it can be in the range of 35.5 - 36.5 degrees,
  • strokes

All these signs say that the patient has a low blood sugar level, its value reaches critical levels.

In some cases, symptoms of hypoglycemia may be absent altogether, this is due to the use of a number of medications. For example, a group of beta-blockers “blocks” the primary manifestations of the disease.

Nocturnal symptoms of the disease

Signs of hypoglycemia can occur in a patient even during sleep. Often, the patient for a long time does not even suspect that his nightly behavior has changed. The reasons for the appearance of “nocturnal” symptoms can also be completely different - nutritional errors, pancreatic tumors, serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and others.

Low blood sugar levels may indicate:

  • increased sweating at night,
  • accidental falls from a berth during sleep,

  • bouts of sleepwalking - muttering, walking, gritting,
  • restless sleep - coups from side to side, frequent sudden awakenings.

The next morning, the patient feels overwhelmed, tired. Often the patient is concerned about headaches.

These include:

  • wet clothes and bed in the morning
  • feeling unwell in the morning
  • sudden night awakenings.

You can independently check whether night hypoglycemia bothers or not. To do this, it is enough to have dinner with carbohydrate products at a later time, at 21: 00-22: 00 hours. If in the morning the unpleasant symptoms will not bother, then you need to see a doctor and take tests.

Patients with diabetes can check their sugar levels with a glucometer at night - at 01: 00-02: 00 hours. A low indicator is a serious reason to seek medical help from a therapist in the near future.

If hypoglycemia is not treated, the patient may experience many complications. All of them will say that the blood glucose is regularly low.

The following indirect symptoms of pathology are found:

  1. Retinal hemorrhage.
  2. Angiopathy.
  3. Cardiovascular disorders.
  4. Lesions of the brain, as a result of which a violation of mental processes develops.

Watch the video: Symptoms and Complications of Diabetes. Nucleus Health (April 2020).