Diabetes in teens is by no means uncommon. If timely measures are not taken, the disease can progress and lead to complications. Often diabetes becomes a cause of impaired physical and mental development.
Depending on the development mechanism and the cause of the pathology, a teenager is diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
Growth hormone and sex hormones are intensively produced in the adolescent's body. Moreover, in certain circumstances, the process of insulin secretion is disrupted. Muscle and fat cells may become less sensitive to this hormone. Insulin resistance leads to frequent jumps in blood glucose levels. This contributes to the development of type 1 diabetes.
As a result of autoimmune reactions, pancreatic cells are destroyed. This negatively affects insulin production. Usually this condition is observed in children with a hereditary predisposition. A provoking factor is often stress, a virus, smoking, toxic or drug poisoning.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus develops in adolescents who are obese, as well as those who lead a sedentary lifestyle, do not follow a diet, and maintain bad habits. Smoking, drinking alcohol and easily digestible carbohydrates leads to metabolic disorders. Insulin is produced in large quantities. The cells of the body cannot absorb glucose that enters the intestines with food. The liver is involved in the breakdown of glycogen and the formation of glucose from amino acids and fats. Blood cholesterol rises, the risk of cardiovascular disease increases.
Some teenagers develop prediabetes. If you start therapy on time, you can prevent the development of type 2 disease. A specific type of disease without ketoacidosis, which occurs due to decreased beta-cell function, is often diagnosed in people aged 15-21.
Symptoms and Complications
Depending on the type of disease, the first signs may occur even at a young age. They appear gradually or immediately. If the pathology is not detected in a timely manner, the symptoms become persistent and pronounced. The manifestation of the disease in adolescents is the same as in adults.
Typical symptoms of diabetes in adolescents:
- constant feeling of thirst and hunger,
- frequent excessive urination,
- dry skin and mucous membranes, skin itching,
- loss or weight gain with a normal diet and exercise schedule,
- decreased activity, increased fatigue and emotional instability (a teenager becomes moody, irritable, anxious),
- visual disturbance, impaired sleep and consciousness,
- numbness and cramps of the limbs.
Diabetes mellitus leads to a decrease in immune defense, so a teenager often suffers from infectious diseases. High blood pressure is noted.
A common sign of type 1 diabetes is the smell of acetone from the mouth. Due to the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood, the patient feels a lack of energy, nausea, and abdominal pain. The breath is noisy and rapid.
Against the background of latent diabetes, girls can experience vaginal candidiasis, which is difficult to treat. Type 2 disease is often accompanied by polycystic ovary and menstrual irregularities.
The development of diabetes mellitus and insulin therapy usually lead to an increase in body weight. When gaining weight, adolescents, for whom the appearance corresponding to the standards adopted in their environment is very important, are prone to depression, are irritated, experience stress, apathy, refuse to eat.
If signs of the disease are ignored, a hypo- or hyperglycemic crisis may occur. The blood glucose concentration rises or decreases sharply, the patient loses consciousness. Such a complication threatens the health and life of a teenager. In diabetics, the likelihood of retinopathy with subsequent hemorrhage in the eye increases. Against the background of diabetes mellitus, nephropathy and microalbuminuria may develop (excretion of a large amount of protein in the urine). High risk of secondary pathologies: renal and liver failure, blindness, lung disease.
Treatment and prevention
Therapy is selected individually, taking into account the cause and type of the disease. Diabetics need to regularly monitor their blood sugar. The most effective and convenient way is glucometry. Depending on the nature and course of the disease, analysis is required 4 to 7 times a day. Normal sugar is 3.9–5.5 mmol / L.
To prevent complications and maintain a normal state, a teenager with a diabetes mellitus makes up a diet. Diet should be balanced based on low-calorie foods with a low glycemic index. It is important to control the amount of simple carbohydrates consumed. The basis of nutrition is vegetables, cereals, unsweetened fruits, low-fat dairy products. Do not eat unhealthy food and alcohol. Stop smoking. Girls are more likely to follow a diet. Some of them excessively limit the diet to lose weight. If food is not controlled, signs of hypo- or hyperglycemia may occur.
Patients with diabetes are prescribed sugar-lowering drugs: Pioglar, Aktos, Siofor, Glucofage. With insufficient insulin production, lifelong hormone replacement therapy is required. Dosage is calculated individually. Adolescents 13-15 years of age are injected with insulin in the ratio of 1 unit per 1 kg of body weight per day. Rarely, a chronic overdose develops - Somoji syndrome. It is necessary to increase the dose of insulin in the presence of an inflammatory process or infection. Girls also need this a few days before the onset of menstruation.
Children with a diagnosis of diabetes must definitely lead an active lifestyle. Regular exercise will help normalize your mental state and blood sugar. Due to this, dose adjustment of insulin administered and an increase in the interval between injections are possible. Suitable sports are jogging, swimming, cycling. Cardio and strength training should be combined.
In order to prevent possible complications in adolescents with diabetes, it is recommended to be regularly examined by an endocrinologist, ophthalmologist, gynecologist, nephrologist. Once a year you need to undergo preventive treatment in a hospital setting. To control blood sugar, it is imperative to follow a diet and regularly conduct glucometry.
This is called type 1 diabetes, it is based on the reaction of immunity to pancreatic cells. The disease occurs when 95% of the insulin producing islet tissue is already destroyed.
To start this process, you need a provoking factor:
- viral infections (rubella, herpes, flu, intestinal, measles, cytomegalovirus and others),
- injury, surgery,
- prolonged use of medications that counteract insulin or affect the pancreas,
- poisoning, including smoking, alcohol and drugs, nitrates,
- autoimmune diseases (the formation of antibodies against their tissues) - rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis,
- Vitamin D deficiency
- artificial nutrition after birth, early feeding with cereals.
Among all cases of diabetes, the first type of disease is found in 90% of adolescents.
And here is more about diabetes in children.
Immune diabetes in adolescents
This group includes type 2 diabetes in adolescents. It increasingly begins against the background of obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. The role of nutrition is the main one. Overeating, sweets provoke the release of insulin, it produces tissue resistance - insulin resistance. This condition enhances the accumulation of fat, forming a vicious circle. At risk are adolescents who have:
- overweight at birth
- tendency to diathesis in childhood,
- frequent colds
- pancreatic inflammation (pancreatitis).
Symptomatic forms of diabetes are less common. They accompany diseases of the endocrine organs:
- Itsenko-Cushing - an excess of cortisol produced by the adrenal glands,
- toxic goiter - an increase in the size of the thyroid gland with increased formation of thyroxine,
- pituitary somatotropinoma - rapid growth of the body due to an increased number of growth factors (growth hormone, insulin-like),
- pheochromocytoma - an adrenal tumor that produces stress hormones (adrenaline, norepinephrine).
At the age of 14-16 years, MODY diabetes and other types of genetic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (Tungsten, Alstrom syndromes) can begin.
As long as the pancreas copes with the formation of insulin, diabetes does not manifest itself. At this time, it can be detected only by immunological examination. Then comes the period of vivid signs (manifestation):
- strong and unquenchable thirst (patients drink more than 3-5 liters per day, sometimes up to 8-10), dry mouth,
- profuse urination, bedwetting,
- increased appetite and weight loss with good nutrition (a teenager can lose 7-9 kg in 2-3 months),
- general weakness, fatigue,
- irritability, insomnia, drowsiness and lethargy during the day,
- itching of the skin, perineum, rash,
- wounds and cuts do not heal for a long time.
In adolescence, the disease often begins with a coma. Patients develop nausea, an attack of vomiting, and abdominal pain. It reminds poisoning or inflammation of the appendix. If diabetes is not detected on time, then there is a loss of consciousness, a fatal outcome is likely. An important sign of this complication is the acetone odor (rotten apples) from the mouth.
Its feature is a slow increase in symptoms. At first, they are not as obvious as in the first type of disease. Parents need to pay attention to:
- increased attraction to sweets (brain cells do not receive the necessary energy, sugar supplies it the fastest),
- constant snacks between meals,
- hunger attacks with headache, dizziness, trembling hands, disappearing after eating,
- weakness and drowsiness 1.5 hours after eating,
- skin rashes - pustular rash, boils, acne, severe itching,
- crusts on the scalp, seizures in the corners of the mouth, peeling of the feet, palms,
- common caries
- frequent infections, fungal diseases with a recurring course, a weak reaction to medications,
- fullness, blush on cheeks.
All typical manifestations of the disease (increased thirst, appetite, urination) usually appear a few months after the first signs. The earlier the diagnosis is made, the higher the chance of inhibiting the progression of diabetes.
Signs of diabetes in a teenager boy
A symptom of diabetes in a teenage boy is the late appearance of secondary signs of maturation. In approximately 40% of cases, suchsymptoms:
- hair under the arms and in the pubic area grow 2-3 years later (at 14-16 years),
- the physique remains infantile (childish), the shoulder girdle does not develop, a pronounced muscle layer is not formed,
- at 14-15 years old, there are no pollutions (semen secretion at night),
- the formation of bone tissue is disturbed, the growth of the body slows down.
All these processes are directly related to the severity of diabetes. With insufficient treatment, young men have low potency, weak sex drive and infertility.Due to the high concentration of sugar in the urine, persistent inflammation often appears in the area of the glans penis - balanoposthitis.
It is accompanied by swelling, redness of the foreskin and impaired urination.
Signs of diabetes in adolescent girls
Signs of diabetes in adolescent girls in 48% of cases are malfunctions of the menstrual cycle, manifested in violations:
- delay of the first menstruation (30% are absent at 14 years old),
- a cycle of different duration, the rhythm of bleeding is not established for a long time,
- scanty discharge
- painful periods
- the mammary glands do not increase in size,
- hair grow weakly in the pubic area,
- thrush appears with repeated exacerbations,
- the mucous membrane of the vagina and labia (vulvovaginitis) becomes inflamed.
If the therapy of diabetes is not started in a timely manner, then in adulthood infertility, miscarriage occurs. The second type of diabetes often occurs with polycystic ovary, which violates the hormonal background. Girls have intensively growing hair on their faces and legs, skin greasy, there are acne rashes, obesity.
A drop in glucose is due to stress, physical overload, eating disorders, large doses of insulin. In adolescents, first occurs:
- weakness, lethargy, mood worsens,
- an attack of severe hunger,
- hand shake
If glucose does not come with food, then excitement develops, replaced by inhibition and loss of consciousness, convulsions. Lack of emergency treatment is life threatening. Frequent drops in sugar disrupt the brain.
Its cause is a lack of insulin. Fats begin to be used for energy, so ketone bodies (acetone) are formed. Appetite decreases, nausea, vomiting builds up, breathing becomes rapid, noisy. You can smell acetone from your mouth. In a few days, this condition turns into a coma without treatment:
- lack of consciousness
- blood pressure drops
- the pulse is frequent and weak,
- irregular breathing.
Emergency medical care is required in an inpatient setting.
They occur as the disease progresses. Due to the high glucose content, the walls of blood vessels are destroyed. Violated activities:
- kidney (nephropathy with renal failure),
- nerve fibers (neuropathy, loss of sensation, diabetic foot with a risk of amputation),
- retina (retinopathy with decreased vision),
- heart (weakness of the heart muscle, angina pectoris, heart attack in adulthood),
- brain (encephalopathy with impaired memory, low mental performance).
Features of the course of adolescent diabetes
Adolescent diabetes is characterized by:
- blood glucose drops
- increased formation of hormones that counteract insulin - growth, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, genital,
- high demand for insulin and a weakening reaction to it,
- unstable work of the nervous system.
All these changes inevitably accompany hormonal changes during puberty. Therefore, it is extremely difficult to choose the right dose of sugar-lowering drugs for adolescents.
Watch the video on diabetes in children and adolescents:
The situation is complicated due to the typical behavioral characteristics of this age:
- frequent diets, junk food with peers,
- ignoring the rhythm of insulin administration, incorrect dose calculation,
- unwillingness to control blood sugar with a glucometer,
- stressful conditions
- mental overload
- alcohol intake, smoking.
In such cases, adolescents need the help of not only an endocrinologist, but also a psychologist. It will also be useful to get to know real people with the consequences of diabetes.
Diagnosing diabetes symptoms in adolescents
The first symptoms of diabetes in a teenager can be detected by a pediatrician. He directs patients to the endocrinologist. To make a diagnosis, blood tests are mandatory:
- glucose (on an empty stomach, two hours after a sugar load),
- insulin, its precursors (C-peptide, proinsulin),
- glycated hemoglobin.
Urine is checked for glucose and acetone. An ultrasound of the pancreas is performed.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes in adolescents
To treat type 1 diabetes in a teenager, insulin should be prescribed immediately. Applied human genetic engineering. The dose and administration schedule is calculated according to the results of the examination. The most commonly used basis bolus therapy:
- morning and evening analogue of a long-acting hormone,
- before main meals, a variable dose of short insulin for the absorption of carbohydrates.
For the introduction of drugs, use a syringe, a syringe pen and a device (insulin pump). Self-monitoring of glucose indicators is extremely important: on an empty stomach, before lunch and dinner, and before bedtime. A ban on sugar, sweets, flour products, fatty meat, alcohol, industrial juices is introduced in the diet. You should avoid fast food, sweet soda, chips and snacks. Physical activity is required, but of moderate intensity.
What to do if type 2 diabetes in adolescents
With type 2 diabetes in adolescents, you first need to rebuild the diet. The basis of the diet should be vegetables (except potatoes), lean meat and fish, dairy products of moderate fat content, unsweetened fruits and berries. Sugar and white flour, as well as all dishes with their content banned. Nutrition for obesity is recommended low-calorie, in small portions 5-6 times a day.
In addition to the diet, compulsory physical activity is prescribed (swimming, therapeutic exercises, light running, Pilates). With insufficient effectiveness, tablets are connected to reduce blood sugar.
How to prevent the development of complications
It is necessary to achieve an indicator of glycated hemoglobin as close to normal as possible (up to 6.5%). This is the most important risk criterion for complications. In practice, this can be achieved in no more than 15% of patients.
In order to keep diabetes under control, it is important:
- stick to a diet,
- set aside time for daily dosed physical activity,
- maintain normal body weight
- measure blood glucose regularly
- follow the instructions of the endocrinologist exactly,
- undergo a full examination at least 1 time in 3 months.
Prevention of diabetes in adolescents
Diabetes mellitus in adolescents can be avoided even with poor heredity. This is proved by the fact that identical twins growing in different conditions do not always get sick together. For the first type of disease, it is important:
- breastfeeding for up to 6 months (minimum),
- protection against viral infections (hardening, increasing immunity),
- sufficient intake of vitamins with food, sun exposure (dosed),
- get tested for a predisposition to type 1 diabetes.
In the second type of disease, the main thing is proper nutrition and normal body weight. They are supplemented by physical activity, annual examinations by the endocrinologist with burdened heredity.
And here is more about obesity in children and adolescents.
Diabetes mellitus in adolescents occurs with sharp drops in blood sugar, has a severe course. This is due to changes in the hormonal background. Most often, 1 type of diabetes is found. It manifests itself with an almost complete destruction of the pancreas. Immediate administration of insulin is necessary. Without treatment, a ketoacidotic coma occurs.
Against the background of overeating, obesity, weak motor activity, type 2 diabetes began to be found more often. It develops more slowly, its progression can be stopped with normalization of nutrition and body weight.
Obesity in children and adolescents can be triggered by both metabolic causes, hormonal failure, and lack of energy expenditure. There are certain risk factors, including genetic ones. Why is obesity dangerous? What else are the reasons for overweight in children and adolescents?
There is diabetes in young people due to genetic mutations, obesity, and heredity. Symptoms are manifested by thirst, increased urination, and others. Late diabetes at a young age in women and men is treated with diet, drugs, insulin injection.
Often the birth of children from parents with diabetes leads to the fact that they are sick with an ailment. The reasons may be in autoimmune diseases, obesity. Types are divided into two - the first and second. It is important to know the features in young people and adolescents in order to diagnose and provide assistance on time. There is prevention of the birth of children with diabetes.
Suspicion of diabetes can arise in the presence of concomitant symptoms - thirst, excessive urine output. Suspicion of diabetes in a child can occur only with a coma. General examinations and blood tests will help you decide what to do. But in any case, a diet is required.
Such a pathology as diabetes mellitus in women can be diagnosed against the background of stress, hormonal disruptions. The first signs are thirst, excessive urination, discharge. But diabetes, even after 50 years, can be hidden. Therefore, it is important to know the norm in the blood, how to avoid it. How many live with diabetes?
What is the peculiarity of pathology in children
Diabetes is a chronic pathology of the endocrine system, manifested by a lack of insulin, without an adequate amount of the hormone, normal absorption of sugar by all cells of the body is impossible.
With the development of the disease, glucose does not have the ability to penetrate into cells and tissues, it continues to circulate in the bloodstream, causing harm to the child. Since glucose is the main source of nutrition, deficiency and severe disturbances occur.
When a patient takes food, along with food, glucose is transformed into pure energy, which helps the body to work smoothly and correctly. Sugar penetrates inside the cells solely due to insulin.
If there is a shortage of substance, glucose remains in the bloodstream, the blood for this reason becomes thick, it is difficult to transfer for cells:
- oxygen molecules.
Over time, the walls of blood vessels lose their former elasticity, permeability. This condition is fraught with problems with the nerve membranes.
In adolescents, the disease is expressed by a change in mineral, protein, lipid, water-salt metabolism. As a result, various complications of the disease arise, they pose a threat to health and life.
Medicine knows several types of ailment, they have certain differences in pathogenesis, symptoms and development, respectively, which differ in the treatment regimen of the disease.
In the first type of diabetes in a child, the pancreas produces little or no substance at all. The body is unable to cope with the load, the level of glycemia rises. In this case, it is necessary to regularly inject the hormone, it is administered in a strictly limited amount and at a certain time.
The ailment of the second form is different in that there are enough substances in the body, sometimes its concentration can exceed the normal range.
However, it becomes useless, tissues are deprived of sensitivity to it, blood sugar is steadily increasing.
Signs of diabetes in adolescents
Different types of problems differ in symptoms, children are prone to the development of a pathology of the first type, the causes are associated with a hereditary predisposition, constant stress. This form is congenital, the child becomes dependent on injections, therefore, regular administration of drugs is indicated. It is difficult for tissues to process glucose.
The second type of pathology - this form of the disease is acquired, it is rarely diagnosed in adolescents, it is more characteristic of adults.
The manifestation of the pathology of the first type: constant thirst, frequent urination, increased appetite, rapid weight loss or weight gain, vaginal candidiasis, increased urine. Also, symptoms of the disease will be excessive irritability, nausea, vomiting, relapsing skin infections.
Signs of diabetes in children 13-14 years old with an insulin-independent form:
- decreased quality of vision
- dry mucosa
- gum bleeding
- suppuration in the corners of the eyes, oral cavity,
- fatigue, fatigue.
Pathology can be suspected by the yellowness of the palms of the hands, feet. A harbinger may be spontaneous hypoglycemia, when the sugar level rises sharply and for no reason, and then so rapidly decreases.
When glucose falls, hunger, weakness increases, the complexion of teens turns yellow, parents should definitely pay attention to this. The symptom is sometimes also visible on the nasolabial triangle.
Pathology makes itself felt by the development of other pathological conditions, so it is important to immediately seek the help of doctors. In children 13-14 years old, it is much easier to detect a violation of carbohydrate metabolism than at an early age; after 3 years, yellowness of the skin becomes apparent.
It happens that the signs of pathology:
- confused with the manifestations of the infectious process,
- the patient may not pay attention to it for a long time.
It is necessary to teach the child to listen to his body and understand the changes in health.
The task of parents is to carefully monitor the complaints of children, to notice the slightest changes for the worse. In adolescence, the disease is formed less frequently, but the occurrence of a latent form is not excluded. Signs of latent metabolic changes are similar to the manifestations of the underlying disease, you need to monitor slowly healing wounds, boils, inflammation in the eyes, barley.
The illness of the first type is characterized by weight loss, the disease can occur at different ages, including adolescence. There is a lack of glucose, the body uses energy reserves from the fat layer, boys suffer less from the manifestation of the disease.
Even if all the doctor’s instructions are followed, there is no guarantee that:
- will be able to control the disease
- the patient will feel good.
In the presence of a hereditary predisposition to hyperglycemia, regular medical monitoring of the situation is required.
Parents should be concerned about sudden weight loss, there is evidence that a teenager can lose up to 10 kg of body weight, this happens in just a couple of weeks. In this case, the patient drinks a lot of water, his appetite is increased.
Night spontaneous urination is noted, although there have not been such problems before. When a child suffers from excessive thirst, over time, he will begin to develop other disorders. Often with diabetes, the patient’s tongue becomes raspberry, and the elasticity of the skin decreases.
Unfortunately, not all parents focus on this in time, as a result of the patient being treated too late, medications do not bring the desired effect.
Diagnostic, treatment methods
The participation of the local pediatrician is important in identifying diabetes, if he suspects the disease, you need to consult an endocrinologist. During the examination, the doctor determines the presence of reduced skin turgor, discoloration of the tongue, diabetic blush on the face (forehead, cheeks, chin).
After a blood test is prescribed, you need to conduct a test for glycemia, a decrease in the level of insulin and hemoglobin. Additionally, you may need to donate blood for a glucose tolerance test.
They give urine, where they consider the presence of acetone, ketone bodies, the specific gravity of urine. Another diagnostic measure will be an ultrasound examination of the pancreas (ultrasound).
In some cases, differential diagnosis is required, it is necessary:
After laboratory diagnosis, the doctor makes the final diagnosis, prescribes a course of treatment.
They treat the first type of disease with the help of replacement therapy, since the cells of the pancreas do not produce the proper amount of insulin, it is necessary to replenish its level. At the same time, the amount of food consumed, the indicators of the substance at different times of the day, are taken into account.
This approach is extremely important, because with the introduction of an excess of hormonal substances, the adolescent's body will spend all glucose reserves, which will provoke depletion of the body and lack of energy. The main consumer of energy is the brain, when there is not enough strength, a severe pathological condition of hypoglycemic coma develops. With him, urgent hospitalization in a medical institution is required. In some cases, a teenager is sent to the intensive care unit.
In addition to injections of a hormonal substance, it is recommended to adhere to a proper diet, fasting is unacceptable, between main meals there should be snacks from vegetables and fruits. Endocrinologists and nutritionists advise to abandon fast carbohydrates, carbonated drinks.
A chocolate candy should always be with you, this will help:
- cope with a sharp decrease in blood glucose,
- prevent glycemic coma.
A decrease in sugar is possible if the patient has injected himself with too much hormone. On a regular basis, you must adhere to a diet, it must have a sufficient amount of protein and complex carbohydrate foods.
It is very rare to use such a treatment method as transplantation of the pancreas, and beta cells in particular. However, such operations can be called an exception to the rule.
The treatment of the second type of disease is based on the use of sugar-lowering drugs, competent and balanced diet. The doctor may prescribe insulin injections, in which case they reduce the likelihood of rapid changes in the level of glycemia.
In order to diagnose the disease early, if there is a predisposition, it is indicated to donate blood for glucose indicators a couple of times a year.
Information on early symptoms of diabetes in children and adults is provided in the video in this article.
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine pathology that develops equally in all patients. The basis for a violation of carbohydrate metabolism is either insulin deficiency synthesized by the pancreas, or tissue resistance to the influence of the hormone.
The symptoms of diabetes in children 12-13 years old are divided into obvious and hidden by doctors. If signs of the first group are found, the doctor or careful parents immediately suspect the progression of the "sweet" disease. So time is saved and therapy is prescribed.
Doctors highlight the following clear signs of diabetes in adolescents:
- Dry mouth, which in 2-3 months progresses to constant thirst - polydipsia. Drinking liquid does not satisfy the child. The patient continues to experience discomfort amid this symptom,
- Rapid urination is polyuria. Due to the consumption of large doses of fluid, the functional load on the kidneys increases. The organs filter more urine that is released,
- An increase in appetite, which turns into hunger, is polyphagy. Impaired carbohydrate metabolism is always accompanied by an energy imbalance. Cells do not metabolize glucose. Compensatory, the body requires more food to provide tissues with ATP molecules.
The indicated triad is observed in all patients suffering from diabetes. Adolescents who report such symptoms lose or gain weight. It all depends on the type of disease.
An insulin-dependent form of diabetes is accompanied by weight loss. Adipose tissue is used by the body as a source of additional energy that is not absorbed from ordinary food due to hormone deficiency.
Type 2 diabetes affects teenagers in 10-15% of cases. The disease develops against the background of insulin resistance, which occurs due to obesity and dysmetabolic changes. Adipose tissue continues to accumulate with the progression of symptoms.
General weakness and deterioration of well-being are regarded by doctors as the traditional clinical manifestations of diabetes in adolescents and patients of other age groups.
The picture described above makes the doctor immediately think about a "sweet" disease. However, there are few such classic cases in practice. Diabetes in 50-60% of cases begins its development with less severe symptoms.
The doctor often suspects other diseases. The idea of a violation of carbohydrate metabolism comes with the manifestation of pathology with the appearance of classic symptoms.
Doctors distinguish the following hidden signs of diabetes in adolescents, which are alarming and forced to take a blood test for glucose:
- Deterioration in school performance. If a teenager was an excellent student and began to study poorly, it is worth paying attention to this. In addition to social reasons, the decline in performance progresses against the background of metabolic and hormonal changes,
- Dry skin. The body cover is the first to respond to changes in metabolism. Excess glucose, the initial lesion of small vessels is accompanied by peeling and other skin problems,
- Frequent infectious diseases. Diabetic pathology is suspected with 5-6 single episodes of influenza, tonsillitis, barley and other variants of simple viral or bacterial diseases,
- Furunculosis. The appearance of acne in adolescence is attributed to hormonal changes in the body. Accession of infection in the areas of acne distribution indicates a violation of carbohydrate metabolism,
- Nervousness, emotional lability. Doctors consider adolescence critical for a child. The formation of the reproductive system, changes in behavior are noted. Excessive metamorphoses are alarming.
The specified clinical picture accompanies diseases of the internal organs. Doctors are not always able to immediately detect diabetes. To improve the diagnostic results, doctors recommend taking blood for analysis as a prophylactic measure.
Early detection of hyperglycemia will allow you to choose adequate therapy and compensate for carbohydrate metabolism disorders. This reduces the risk of complications and improves the quality of life of the child.
Features of the symptoms of girls
Diabetes mellitus in adolescents is hidden behind the hormonal changes in the body. At the age of 12–16, the formation of internal and external structures responsible for procreation occurs. In girls, menstruation appears, the breast begins to grow, the shape of the shoulders and hips changes.
The onset of a “sweet” disease during this period corrects the well-being of young patients. Doctors highlight the following special signs of diabetes in adolescent girls:
- Vaginal candidiasis. Against the background of weakened immunity, the chance of joining the secondary flora increases. Poor hygiene, the presence of other foci of infection increases the risk of gynecological problems,
- Irregular menstruation. In adolescence, menstruation is just beginning to appear. Depending on the characteristics of the body, they differ among different girls. The symptom is difficult to establish due to the continued formation of the reproductive system,
- Emotional lability. Tearfulness, which changes in episodes of euphoria in combination with increased thirst and appetite, alarms doctors. Isolated mood swings are attributed to transitional age.
Enrolling a young girl for diabetics is possible only after a blood or urine test. Parents are advised to monitor the well-being of the child and, if there are obvious symptoms, consult a doctor.
The first signs in boys 14 years old
Boys are prone to developing diabetes at 13-14 years old, but sometimes the disease appears at 15 years old.
Young men often suffer:
- pustular skin lesions,
- headaches and irritability
- a steady decrease or increase in weight.
In boys, a frequent symptom of diabetes is inflammation of the foreskin, which is aggravated by a systematically increased level of glucose and the lack of careful care of the genitals. In order for the pathological process to pass, the teenager should pay close attention to hygiene.
Tips & Tricks
Symptoms and signs of diabetes are not the only method for determining the disease. To confirm the diagnosis, you need to donate blood to an empty stomach and 2 hours after taking a sweet solution inside.
Averages can be found in the table.
A low-carbohydrate diet is vital to reduce diabetes symptoms. With such a diet, it is easier to maintain sugar levels close to optimal levels.
It is necessary to increase immunity, to accustom a teenager to physical activity, an active lifestyle. If sugar has grown, it helps to lower it and increase insulin sensitivity — regular exercise, swimming, aerobics.
Timely recognized symptoms of diabetes can prevent many complications. The most common in children are diabetic nephropathy and visual impairment. How to get rid of concomitant diseases can be found at the endocrinologist’s appointment.
It is useful for parents and adolescents to attend a school for diabetics, study books and brochures that are recommended there, communicate on forums, read reviews, plus discuss their problems with other people.
It has always been believed that diabetes is an adult disease. But, as it turned out, over the past 2-3 decades there has been a tendency to increase the number of people with diabetes among adolescents. Let's try to find out the causes of diabetes in adolescents, identify the main signs of diabetes in adolescents, and consider treatment options.
Scientists have long established that the main cause of diabetes is genetic heredity. The second reason is an everyday lifestyle. Unfortunately, modern youth is fond of food from fast food restaurants, drink alcohol, smoke, and some indulge in all serious and use drugs. But not only addiction to bad habits can provoke the work of the diabetes gene - an ordinary stressful situation leads to the launch of the disease.
There are general signs of diabetes, characteristic of both adults and children. True, sometimes, the appearing symptoms are caused by another disease. In any case, each disease is best diagnosed at an early stage.
The first signs of diabetes onset are:
- constant need of water turning into thirst,
- a significant increase in urination during the day and night,
- sudden weight loss
- nausea and vomiting,
- sudden changes in mood, increased nervousness,
- imperfections in the form of purulent formations regularly appear on the skin,
- girls develop thrush.
Indeed, the symptoms are characteristic of a number of diseases. But there are acute signs that signal the need for immediate hospitalization:
- regular gagging, vomiting,
- frequent need for a toilet, amid general dehydration,
- a decrease in the frequency of inhalation and exhalation, accompanied by extraneous noise,
- ketoacidosis (at the time of exhalation, a sharp smell of acetone is felt),
- constant state of lethargy, distraction, periodic loss of consciousness,
- acquisition of limbs of a bluish tint,
Most often, diabetes in children and adolescents is diagnosed by doctors with the manifestation of acute symptoms. Worse when a diagnosis is made with the onset of a diabetic coma.
It is difficult for newborns to detect signs of the disease, since the baby does not even know how to feel bad. Therefore, parents should pay attention to the following points:
- the child consumes milk according to the norms, but slowly puts on weight,
- constantly screaming, and the moment of tranquility comes with getting a plentiful drink,
- on diapers, after drying the urine, the effect of processing starch is created,
- non-treatable diaper rash occurring around the external genitalia,
- the surface, when urine enters, after drying it becomes sticky,
- causeless vomiting,
- sudden depletion of the body caused by dehydration.
For adolescence, a manifestation of general symptoms is characteristic, but with certain features that affect the timing of determining the onset of the disease. Many parents write off the signs of diabetes on the school load, thereby delaying the diagnosis of the disease.
It is worthwhile to conduct tests if you notice that the child:
- is in a state of constant weakness, lethargy,
- gets tired quickly while doing physical / mental exercises,
- complains of frequent migraines, headaches,
- regularly discontent, irritability,
- It’s worse to study
- constantly absorbs sweets.
Having reached adulthood, acute signs of diabetes begin to appear. The reason lies in the hormonal restructuring of the body, during which insulin resistance develops, which is characterized by a decrease in the sensitivity of cells to the effects of insulin, thus the cells are deprived of the ability to receive glucose from the blood.
After visiting medical specialists and confirming the diagnosis of diabetes, the doctor will most likely prescribe insulin injections and a dietary table. In this case, certain rules must be observed:
- constant monitoring of blood sugar
- when changing the glucose content, adjust the injection dose accordingly,
- regular visits to specialists, conducting analyzes,
- every three months carrying out an analysis of hemoglobin level,
- increase the dosage of the drug during infectious diseases,
- girls in premenstrual syndrome increase the amount of insulin,
- It is recommended to undergo preventive treatment in a hospital once a year.
Diet means a maximum reduction in carbohydrates, an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The dietary table does not exclude chicken, turkey, and beef from the diet. Pork is not recommended.
Quite rarely, adolescents have type 2 diabetes, which is characteristic of the elderly. A distinctive feature of this disease is the presence of excess weight, often flowing into obesity.
Therefore, doctors strongly recommend that in case of diabetes mellitus 1 and 2, physical activity is introduced into the daily routine, which can significantly reduce the dose of insulin and reduce excess weight.
Diabetes mellitus in a teenager often scares parents, but observing certain rules, an appropriate diet and regular injections can not only stop the development of the disease, but even minimize insulin consumption.
Diabetes is not a sentence - it is a disease that can raise a real Man in a child, accustomed to order, discipline. Also the opportunity to create a beautiful body, due to constant physical training.
Diabetes in teens: find out everything you need on this page. It is intended for young patients, and even more for their parents. Understand the symptoms of impaired glucose metabolism in boys and girls aged 11-16 years. Read about diabetes complications and their prevention. The main thing is to find out about effective methods of treatment that allow you to keep a stable normal sugar of 3.9-5.5 mmol / l, stop its jumps. Understand what diet you need to follow and how to correctly calculate the dose of insulin. It also tells which sports are suitable for teenagers with diabetes.
Diabetes in Teens: A Detailed Article
Treating diabetes in adolescence is challenging. It is believed that only 15% of diabetic adolescents manage to keep their glycated hemoglobin no higher than 7.0%. Not to mention the performance of healthy people - 4.8-5.7%. Why are the results in this category of patients so poor? The fact is that in adolescents, due to puberty, the level of hormones jumps. This is causing chaos in blood sugar. The insulin injected by diabetics generally is unstable. And in adolescents, this instability is further enhanced due to hormonal storms.
Adolescents are also prone to self-destructive behavior. In particular, they can violate the diet and refuse insulin injections. Having survived adolescence, diabetics usually repent of complete stupidity. However, severe irreversible complications may develop during a behavioral crisis. In particular, problems with the eyes and kidneys. Dr. Bernstein and the Endocrin-Patient.Com website teach how to keep stable normal blood sugar in severe labile type 1 diabetes, and even more so in type 2 diabetes. Read more about type 1 diabetes control program. It is suitable even for pregnant women, and especially teenagers. If only the patient had the motivation to comply with the regimen.
Early signs are intense thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue. A teenager may become more moody and irritable than usual. Rapid inexplicable weight loss may begin. Sometimes it happens against a background of increased appetite. All of these symptoms are easy to attribute to academic overload or a cold, so the patient himself and his relatives rarely raise an alarm.
In addition to the symptoms listed above, vaginal candidiasis (thrush) still occurs. Against the background of latent diabetes, this problem is difficult to treat. The situation improves only when impaired glucose metabolism is detected and insulin treatment begins. In type 2 diabetes, there may be polycystic ovary, menstrual irregularities. However, in the CIS countries, type 2 diabetes is extremely rare in adolescents.
Parents can be wary when their child has acute symptoms of type 1 diabetes: the smell of acetone from the mouth, blurred vision, obvious impaired consciousness. However, often even these clear signs are ignored. As a rule, diabetes is detected in adolescents only when they lose consciousness due to very high blood sugar. Occasionally, a disease is diagnosed based on the results of planned annual physical examinations. In such cases, it is possible to avoid an initial hit in intensive care.
The standard diet for diabetics is the consumption of a significant amount of carbohydrates, which quickly and strongly increase blood sugar. It is necessary to inject high doses of insulin to bring down the increased level of glucose. However, insulin is unstable. The effect of the same doses can vary by ± 53% on different days, even with the perfectly correct administration technique. Because of this, blood sugar in diabetics jumps.
To solve the problem, you need to abandon the prohibited foods overloaded with carbohydrates. Instead, they emphasize permitted foods that contain mainly proteins and natural healthy fats. A low-carb diet reduces insulin doses by a factor of 5–7. And the lower the dose, the lower the spread of glucose readings in the blood. In this way, it is possible to keep sugar 3.9-5.5 mmol / L even with severe type 1 diabetes, with a zero level of C-peptide in the blood. And even more so when at least minimal production of their own insulin is maintained.
Diabetics have the opportunity to avoid complications and lead a normal life without being flawed compared to peers. However, it is necessary to solve the difficult task - to convince the teenager to carefully follow the medical recommendations.
English-speaking resources advise parents of diabetic teens:
- surround your child with maximum care,
- to ensure that there are no overloads in studies, to blow off dust particles,
- fill up mountains of insulin, test strips and any other resources.
All this is nonsense. Now you will find out the politically incorrect truth of life.
Perhaps visual agitation can convince a teenager to take their diabetes seriously. Organize personal communication with older patients who already have problems with their legs, kidneys, or eyes. The life of such diabetics is a real hell. For example, dialysis is a replacement therapy for kidney failure. Each year, 20% of patients undergoing such procedures voluntarily refuse further treatment. In fact, they commit suicide because their life is unbearable. However, they do not write about this in specialized Russian-language forums. They create an embellished picture. Because after diabetics develop severe complications, they lose the desire and ability to communicate on the Internet.
Unfortunately, the accumulated statistics predicts that you will not succeed in convincing a diabetic teenager to take up the mind. Therefore, parents need to consider the worst-case scenario, come to terms with it in advance and prepare for it, trying to minimize the damage. Imagine the most creepy option: your diabetic offspring will die at a young age. Or he will become disabled and hang on the neck of his parents. In this case, he will not be either a Nobel laureate or a dollar billionaire, and even grandchildren may not be. Plan what you will do if things turn out like this.
Parents need to consider the negative scenario, come to terms with it in advance and plan their actions. According to Jewish folk wisdom, you need to prepare for the worst, and the best will take care of itself. It is absolutely impossible to control the nutrition and lifestyle of adolescents. Throw this idea out of your head. If a diabetic teenager wants to kill himself, you cannot stop him. The more persistently you try to control, the worse the consequences will be. Explain to a teenager who has impaired glucose metabolism that you will not sell an apartment to get him a new kidney. Then release the situation. Switch to something else.
Switching from syringes to an insulin pump does not help solve the problem of diabetes in children and adolescents. Controlling glucose metabolism using an insulin pump requires the patient to be organized and able to perform basic arithmetic calculations. Not all diabetic teens are so advanced. Dr. Bernstein does not recommend anyone switch to an insulin pump at all. Because these devices cause long-term insoluble problems. Especially abdominal scars that interfere with insulin absorption.
At the same time, it is advisable to use a continuous glucose monitoring system if you can afford it. You can easily find in Russian detailed information about Dexcom and FreeStyle Libre devices - their comparison in terms of price / quality ratio, patient reviews, where to buy, etc. Perhaps, by the time you read this article, other similar devices will appear . Let's hope that the price of the devices themselves and consumables will go down due to increased competition.
However, the release of insulin pump hybrids and continuous glucose monitoring systems is not yet planned. Obviously, manufacturers are afraid to take responsibility for the possible grave consequences of the malfunction of such an apparatus. See also Dr. Bernstein’s video on the prospects for a definitive solution to type 1 diabetes.
Diabetic teens can and should be physically active. However, you need to understand well how physical activity affects blood sugar.
- First, adrenaline and other stress hormones are secreted. They dramatically increase glucose levels.
- Further, with prolonged and / or severe physical exertion, sugar drops.
- It can fall so hard that unexpected hypoglycemia occurs.
Football and hockey team leaders fear that diabetic players will faint due to low sugar during an intense workout or tournament match. Therefore, coaches try to survive children and adolescents with impaired glucose metabolism from their teams.
You should always measure your sugar with a glucometer before starting your workout. A continuous glucose monitoring system is not accurate enough for this case. Only a quality glucometer is suitable. Diabetics who are treated with standard methods are not recommended to engage in sports with sugar values in excess of 13.0 mmol / L. For patients who follow a low-carb diet, the threshold figure is 8.5 mmol / L. If your glucose level is higher than this, use insulin to lower it and postpone your workout until tomorrow.
Diabetics need to try to be thin and sinewy. The less body fat, the better. Because fat deposits reduce insulin sensitivity and require higher doses of this hormone in injections. And the higher the dose, the greater the dispersion of their action and stronger jumps in blood sugar. It is recommended to combine cardio and strength training. The author of the Endocrin-Patient.Com website is engaged in long-distance running and believes that it is more useful than swimming and cycling. Dr. Bernstein has been pulling iron in the gym for over 50 years. At the age of 81, he uploaded a video in which he performed real miracles, inaccessible to almost any person younger than him, even 30-40 years old. An alternative is not to go to the gym, but to train with your own weight at home.
Books will come in handy:
- Qi run. The revolutionary method of running without effort and injury.
- Training area. Secret system of physical training.
If you train diligently, then most likely you will need to reduce the dose of prolonged and fast insulin by 20-50%. Increasing the body's sensitivity to insulin is one of the many positive effects that physical education gives. During training, you need to measure your sugar with a glucometer every 15-60 minutes. If you feel symptoms of hypoglycemia, check your blood sugar immediately. If necessary, raise it to normal, eat carbohydrates - not more than 6 grams. It is strongly recommended that you use only glucose in tablets as a source of carbohydrates. No sweets, cookies, and especially fruit.
It is important to maintain the habit of playing sports as an adult, and not just as a teenager. This is a matter of prioritizing life. Physical education and other ways to promote health for a diabetic should be in the first place. And career and everything else - then. Lack of regular physical activity does about the same harm as smoking 10-15 cigarettes per day. Ask what telomeres are and how they relate to life expectancy. To date, the only real way to increase the length of telomeres is through intense training. No pharmaceuticals can solve this problem.
Hiding your diabetes from friends is a bad idea. This disease must be treated calmly, because it is not contagious. Diabetes should not interfere with a normal social life. Unless you have to carry and sometimes use a glucometer, as well as accessories for administering insulin. If you have such friends that you need to hide your diabetes from them, it is better to change the company. Especially if friends are trying to treat a diabetic with harmful carbohydrates or large doses of alcohol.
First, we discuss the prognosis for diabetics who are treated with standard methods. This means that they eat a lot of carbohydrates, inject high doses of insulin and experience jumps in blood sugar. As a rule, severe complications of diabetes do not yet have time to develop in adolescence. Blood and urine tests that test kidney function are gradually getting worse. There may be hemorrhages in the eyes due to retinopathy. But severe renal failure and blindness are likely to become a real threat only after reaching adulthood.
This allows parents to minimize their child’s diabetes control efforts. Like, we’ll somehow reach adulthood, and then let him deal with his problems himself. Diabetic adolescents grow more slowly than their peers. They also lag behind in mental development. But nowadays, against a low general background, this is usually imperceptible. Some symptoms of diabetic neuropathy will probably appear already in adolescence. For example, the inability to move your shoulder or fold your hands tightly. There may be tingling, pain, or numbness in the legs.
In principle, all of these complications can be avoided. A teenager with impaired glucose metabolism can grow no worse than his peers and keep up with them in no way. To do this, parents need to solve two problems:
- Transfer the whole family to a low-carb diet so that illicit foods disappear altogether from home.
- To convince a diabetic teenager to follow a diet and not eat any nasty things secretly, even when there is no control over him.
Families who have experienced diabetes in the younger generation are rarely able to achieve these goals. The chances of success are higher for people who know English. Because they can ask for support on Facebook type1grit community. It consists of hundreds, if not thousands, of people who control type 1 diabetes with a low-carb diet and other Dr. Bernstein tricks. There are many diabetic teens and their parents. On the Russian-speaking Internet, there is nothing like this yet.
Depression in diabetics occurs due to a sense of hopelessness, one's own impotence, and the inability to slow down the development of complications. Patients who treat their diabetes with the methods of Dr. Bernstein look to the future with confidence. They keep stably normal sugar and know that they do not face monstrous complications. Therefore, they have no reason for depression. Dr. Bernstein once had his patients undergo formal tests to determine the severity of depression. After success in controlling glucose metabolism, their mental state always returned to normal.
Symptoms of boys
The body of teenage boys undergoes hormonal changes by 1-16 years. Young men note a change in the timbre of the voice, male-type hair growth progresses, muscle mass increases, and the external genitalia increase.
The following symptoms will help to suspect diabetes:
- Nocturia is predominant urination at night. The amount of liquid discharge during sleep exceeds daytime. Sometimes urinary incontinence develops,
- Itching in the external genital area. The intensity of the symptom depends on hygiene, the severity of hyperglycemia, the individual characteristics of a particular patient,
- Smell of acetone from the mouth. A sign that is characteristic of patients with an insulin-dependent form of the disease. There is an accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood, which causes a symptom.
Boys in adolescence suffering from diabetes note fluctuations in body weight. Behavior changes. Young men become either too closed or brawlers. To verify the diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo a laboratory examination.
The progression of diabetes at an early age is accompanied by a slowdown in puberty in both boys and girls. If parents note this fact, then the disease has already been “experienced” for several years.
Doctors use laboratory tests and tests to verify the diagnosis of diabetes. A blood test, urine confirms or refutes the suspicion of the parents. Common diagnostic methods doctors call:
- Blood test,
- Blood test for glycosylated hemoglobin.
In the first case, glycemia is assessed. The patient gives blood on an empty stomach. Normal values are 3.3–5.5 mmol / L. Exceeding the numbers indicates a violation of carbohydrate metabolism. To confirm the diagnosis, doctors repeat the study 2-3 times.
Urinalysis is a less specific test. It demonstrates the presence of glucose in liquid secretions only with hyperglycemia above 10 mmol. The analysis is included in the mandatory list when assessing the condition of a patient with suspected diabetes.
A blood test for glycosylated hemoglobin shows an increase in the amount of protein associated with carbohydrate. Normally, the concentration does not exceed 5.7%. An increase of up to 6.5% further indicates diabetes.
It is not always possible to identify a “sweet” disease in adolescence. The main thing is to closely monitor the child’s well-being.
There are many reasons for diabetes. Symptoms in adolescents should be a signal for urgent treatment in a hospital. It is worth paying attention to such signs:
- Frequent urination, which was not previously observed.
- If the appetite is good, but significant weight loss is noticed, this is also a reason to suspect diabetes in adolescents. Symptoms are also suitable for a number of other diseases, but they need to be excluded.
- If abnormalities in the work of the body and deviations in the blood have occurred, then a strong thirst appears. When the blood contains a high concentration of glucose, the body dehydrates very quickly. It is better to replenish fluid supplies with juices or compotes, but not with clean water.
- If a teenager began to complain of frequent fatigue, then it is better to undergo a diagnosis. Even if it turns out that this is not diabetes, you can timely remove the causes of another ailment.
- If there are complaints that the limbs are numb and swollen, then this is another reason to suspect diabetes in adolescents.
The first symptoms can occur in long-term respiratory diseases. At first glance, it is difficult to find something in common in such diseases, but this is due to the work of the whole organism, and in order not to lose time, it is worthwhile to undergo an examination.
A striking symptom that can be a clue are poorly healing wounds. If not even minor wounds are treated, then suppuration occurs in these places.
For more than half a year, the disease can proceed secretly, and headaches and fatigue, accompanied by irritability, which are sometimes attributed to transitional age, will be added to complaints. But besides this, there is also a strong desire to eat sweets. During puberty, an acute course of the disease is possible. Due to changes in the hormonal background, the effect of drugs is sometimes reduced.
In type 2 diabetes, which adolescents with obesity most often suffer from, complaints relate to a general deterioration in well-being.
When the first blood tests are taken, then in the presence of diabetes, an increased glucose level will be noted in it. The doctor will be able to make an accurate diagnosis after a full examination.
What parents should pay attention to
Not all parents have a medical education, but this does not prevent them from being careful about the health of their children. Diabetes manifests itself differently in adolescents. Symptoms and signs all at once do not upset one person, and not all manifestations can be pronounced. Parents can pay attention to such moments as weight loss, frequent pustular wounds, constant enduring fatigue. For the final diagnosis, tests will have to be taken more than once.
Endocrine disease is accompanied by many complications to other organs, so it is so important to identify the disease in the early stages in order to manage to support the body as much as possible in the fight against the disease.
If you suspect diabetes, contact your endocrinologist
An endocrinologist can establish such a diagnosis, but does not do this at the first meeting. The patient is examined by different doctors before receiving an opinion with a diagnosis of diabetes. In adolescents, the symptoms may look the same and apply to another disease. To exclude other ailments, young people undergo a full examination.If the diagnosis is confirmed, then from this moment it is worthwhile to carefully and carefully treat your body. Problems associated with the diagnosis, and so will make themselves felt, the main thing is not to aggravate them with bad habits and the wrong way of life. If symptoms of diabetes mellitus were detected in a teenager of 14 years old, then parents should fully monitor the examination and further treatment.
At this age, it is extremely rare to understand the seriousness of the situation in the patient, especially if the disease is not pronounced. In the first stages, parental involvement is very important. Children may be bored with monotonous and boring blood sugar measurements. In general, they can forget about timely eating.
The role of glucose in the body
Diabetes is one of those diseases that can cause complications in different organs, which will significantly affect the quality of life. Glucose is the main carbohydrate of the whole body. In metabolism, she plays an important role. This is a universal source of energy for the body as a whole. For some tissues and organs, only glucose is suitable as an energy source. And if insulin ceases to deliver this hormone to its destination, then these organs suffer.
The danger of diabetes
This disease is bad at any age, sad when they detect diabetes in adolescents. Symptoms in the first stages may not manifest themselves clearly, and the disease is sometimes detected by chance, during medical examinations or when contacting doctors with other diseases. Diabetes tends to progress and aggravate a person’s condition.
The sooner diabetes manifests itself, the more time it has to hit the young body and finally manifest itself in the most unpleasant symptoms and complications. The quality of life of a teenager is significantly deteriorating, he must constantly monitor his lifestyle and health, monitor blood sugar and be very organized in these matters.
Chronic complications in adolescents with diabetes
The disease is terrible in that it gives complications to many organs and the well-being of a person as a whole. The organs of vision are affected: the longer a person is in a disease, the worse his eyesight. There are cases of complete loss.
One of the complications is severe kidney damage, gangrene often occurs on the lower extremities. Because of this, a person may limp when walking.
A side disease is diabetic encephalopathy, which means that pathological processes take place in the brain. In the internal organs and limbs, the destruction of nerve endings occurs.
Diabetic osteoarthropathy is manifested by the destruction of bones and joints. Also, diabetes provokes ischemic disease and its complications (myocardial infarction). Symptoms of diabetes in a teenager of 14 years is an alarming sign. At this age, the body is developing rapidly, and such disruptions in health cannot but affect future life.
The disease is constantly progressing, therefore new problems and experiences arise, including those related to sexual function (both in boys and girls). Guys may lose their sexual desire, and in the future, the physical opportunity to participate in sexual intercourse. Girls can not bear a child, the fetus freezes, miscarriages occur. The disease is bad in itself at any age, but it often makes it impossible for young people to have children.
Acute complications of diabetes
What has been described above looks joyless, but these are not even the greatest dangers that a teenager with diabetes can face. If symptoms of diabetes mellitus are detected in a 17-year-old teenager, one must also remember the physiological changes that naturally occur at this age.
There is a hormonal restructuring of the body, there is a social formation. This is the age of protests and denial of authority, a teenager does not always want to listen to the recommendations of doctors and parents. Is it possible to force a person to be responsible for his health? Probably not. In this case, the child only receives advice from a specialist, but he makes the decision himself and must shoulder the responsibility for his health. If you do not respond to the needs of your body, then the answer will be acute complications.
What health irresponsibility leads to
Careless behavior can lead to acute complications, among them a hypoglycemic coma. It occurs when the blood sugar level drops sharply, but there is nothing to raise it at this moment. Coma often occurs after increased physical exertion or drinking. She may be preceded by a split in the eyes, severe hunger, trembling in the limbs and sweating. When convulsions occur, urgent hospitalization is required. In this state, you need to drink any sweet drink. If the patient has already lost consciousness, then before the ambulance arrives he needs to put sugar under his tongue. You should listen to your body, and the teenager must constantly be reminded of this until he becomes more responsible in this matter.
Fear of hypoglycemic coma - how to get rid of it?
Measuring sugar levels is not just a monotonous, daily, annoying ritual, but a necessary condition for the body to mature, mature and develop as it should. We must not forget to measure blood sugar, at least 4 times a day before main meals: breakfast, lunch and dinner, and always before bedtime. Teenagers say that they have a fear of nocturnal hypoglycemia, because in a dream they do not feel anything.
But to prevent this, it is enough to measure the sugar level at bedtime, and if the indicator is below 5 millimoles per liter, the state of nocturnal hypoglycemia may develop. So, you need to take an additional amount of carbohydrates. You can ask parents to take a nightly measurement of glycemia, it is enough to do this once or twice a week. Parents need to control diabetes in adolescents to help their children cope with fears and anxieties.
If you measure blood sugar at night, then knowing that it does not go beyond the boundaries acceptable for the child, you can feel relaxed. Do not forget that when you come to visit or gather in companies with friends, you also need to measure blood sugar if there is any kind of meal.
Alcohol can provoke the development of hypoglycemia, it blocks the withdrawal of glucose from the liver. In combination with intoxication and an inadequate perception of reality in this state, this can lead to grave consequences. So many experiences can be avoided if you lead the right lifestyle and adhere to recommendations.
Early detection of disease in adolescents
The earlier a disease is identified, the more effective the treatment. This is especially true when diabetes is confirmed in adolescents. Symptoms, features of this disease require the patient to be very attentive to their health.
In a growing organism, any malfunctions are already a deviation from the norm, which is worth paying attention to. To identify the disease in the early stages, you need to notice any changes that occur in the body of the child. You should especially be attentive to children in whom one of the parents has diabetes. The disease is very likely to be inherited. In order not to be mistaken with the result, the doctor can give a referral to the same tests several times.
Why does diabetes develop at an early age?
An impetus for the manifestation of the disease is some reason, and before prescribing treatment, the endocrinologist must find out which one.
Heredity is a significant factor. Usually, diseased genes are passed on to the baby from the mother. And it is not necessary that the baby will be sick from the first day of his life. Diabetes can manifest itself in a few years, already in adolescence. Symptoms only indicate that the mechanism of the disease is running. If such a genetic problem is known, it is worth keeping yourself as safe as possible from the provocateurs of this disease.
But not only heredity is the cause of the disease, there are others. The impetus can be overweight. If you constantly get sick with simple diseases such as flu, rubella or smallpox, then a pathology can develop.
Pediatricians often prescribe medications to children that negatively affect the functioning of the pancreas, this can trigger the onset of the disease.
Drinking glucose in the blood leads to the use of alcohol. Stress and excitement that are present in adolescence is one of the causes of diabetes. Symptoms in adolescents may be left unattended for some time, because young people ignore poor health and do not inform their parents.
Can teenagers with diabetes go in for sports?
Exercising well affects the body in almost all cases. You can choose any sport to which the soul lies: aerobics, tennis, swimming. When playing sports, you should not forget about measuring sugar levels and taking carbohydrates, so that no unforeseen situations affect the outcome of the competition or team play. Also, the coach should know about the health situation, so that in case of problems he understands what measures should be taken.