As we know, earlier, dietary table No. 9 was used to treat diabetes. And now this diet is present in state medical institutions. For people suffering from type 1 diabetes, the diet is selected individually, and it is only an auxiliary component to taking insulin. As for those suffering from type 2 diabetes, nutrition here will have a major focus on the treatment and maintenance of blood sugar levels.
Blood glucose level and the reasons for its increase or decrease
On average, in a healthy adult, fasting blood glucose levels range from 3.3–5.5 mmol / L. After eating, the glucose level rises sharply for a while, and then restored.
There is such a thing as the glycemic index - this is the ability to increase blood glucose levels with foods that contain carbohydrates. If its values increase, then this indicates that glucose, which requires insulin for its absorption, accumulates faster and more. If these values are lowered in foods or dishes, then glucose enters the bloodstream more slowly and evenly, and this requires a small amount of insulin.
List of products with different glycemic index (GI):
- below 15 (all types of cabbage, zucchini, spinach, sorrel, radish, radish, turnip, cucumber, asparagus, leek, rhubarb, sweet pepper, mushrooms, eggplant, squash),
- 15–29 (prunes, blueberries, cherries, plums, citrus fruits, lingonberries, cherries, cranberries, tomatoes, pumpkin seeds, nuts, dark chocolate, kefir, fructose),
- 30–39 (black, white, red currants, pear, fresh and dried apples, peaches, raspberries, dried apricots, peas, beans, apricots, milk, milk chocolate, low-fat fruit yogurt, lentils),
- 70–79 (raisins, beets, pineapple, watermelon, rice, boiled potatoes, ice cream, sugar, granola, cheesecakes),
- 80–89 (muffins, candies, carrots, caramel),
- 90–99 (white bread, baked and fried potatoes).
Two groups of hormones affect the concentration of glucose in the blood. The hormone that lowers blood glucose is insulin, the hormones that increase blood glucose are glucagon, growth hormone and glucocorticoids, and adrenal hormones. Adrenaline, one of the stress hormones, inhibits the release of insulin into the blood. One of the symptoms of diabetes is a prolonged increase in blood glucose (hyperglycemia).
The causes of hyperglycemia can be:
- various stressful situations
- hereditary factor
- genetic disorders
- allergic reactions
- prolonged colds, etc.
What to eat with high blood sugar (glucose)?
The foods needed to support people with diabetes should contain a trace element such as zinc. It is very important for pancreatic beta cells, because zinc protects them from destruction. It is also necessary for the synthesis, secretion and excretion of insulin. Zinc is found in foods such as beef and veal liver, asparagus, green beans, young peas, beef, eggs, onions, mushrooms, garlic, buckwheat. The daily norm of zinc for a person is 1.5–3 g. Products containing zinc are not recommended for consumption at the same time as foods containing calcium (milk and dairy products), because calcium reduces the absorption of zinc in the small intestine.
The ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates for this pathology should correspond to 1: 1: 4. If we take these indicators in quantitative terms, then proteins - 60–80 g / day (including 50 g / day of animal protein), fats - 60–80 g / day (including 20–30 g of animal fat) , carbohydrates - 450-500 g / day (including polysaccharides 350-450 g, i.e. complex carbohydrates).
At the same time, dairy products, dairy products and wheat flour products should be limited. It may seem that you need to consume a very large amount of carbohydrates. I will explain: according to certain rules, a person who suffers from diabetes should not consume more than 7 bread units (1 bread unit corresponds to 10-12 g of carbohydrates contained in a particular food product) per day. However, the carbohydrates that the patient receives are necessary precisely as polysaccharides: they contain mannose, fucose, arabinose. They activate the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which is not synthesized enough in the conditions of the development of diabetes mellitus, which is one of the causes of this pathology. Therefore, it is mannose and fucose that are involved in the recovery of carbohydrate metabolism. A large amount of mannose is found in foods such as oatmeal, rice, barley, barley, buckwheat, millet. The best source of fucose-containing polysaccharides is seaweed (kelp). It must be consumed at 25-30 g / day. But keep in mind that it can stimulate uterine contractions, therefore, sea kale is not recommended for use during pregnancy.
As for cereals, their volume is about 200-250 ml.
- It is recommended to use about 200 g / day of bread products in the form of dark breads (rye, seed bread, whole grain bread, etc.).
- From vegetables: all types of cabbage (it is advisable to heat them) - 150 g / day, tomatoes (previously peeled, because it contains lectin, a substance that destroys liver cells) - 60 g / day, cucumbers (previously peeled peel, which contains the substance cucurbitacin, which destroys liver cells). Squash, squash, pumpkin - 80 g / day. Potatoes (baked, boiled) - 200 g / day. Beets - 80 g / day, carrots - 50 g / day, sweet red pepper - 60 g / day, avocado - 60 g / day.
- Of the proteins of plant origin, it is recommended to use asparagus, green beans, young peas - 80 g / day. Olives - 5 pcs./day.
- Large-sized fruits and citrus fruits - one fruit per day (apple, pear, kiwi, mandarin, orange, mango, pineapple (50 g), peach, etc., except for banana, grapes). Small fruits and berries (cherries, cherries, apricots, plums, gooseberries, raspberries, black, red, white currants, strawberries, strawberries, mulberries, etc.) - their volume is measured within a small handful.
- Proteins of animal origin (beef, veal - 80 g / day, lean pork - 60 g / day, liver (beef, veal) - 60 g 2 times a week, chicken breast - 120 g / day, rabbit - 120 g / day , turkey - 110 g / day).
- From fish products: low-fat sea fish, red fish varieties (salmon, trout) - 100 g / day.
- 1 egg per day or 2 eggs in 2 days.
- Milk 1.5% fat - only as an additive to tea, coffee, cocoa, chicory - 50-100 ml / day. Hard cheese 45% fat - 30 g / day. Cottage cheese 5% - 150 g / day. Biokefir - 15 ml / day, preferably at night.
- Vegetable fats: extra virgin olive oil or corn oil - 25-30 ml / day.
- Of animal fats, butter is used 82.5% fat - 10 g / day, sour cream 10% - 5-10 g / day, homemade yogurt made on milk 1.5% fat - 150 ml / day .
I would also like to mention nuts (walnuts, cashews, hazelnuts or hazelnuts, almonds) - 5 pcs. / Day. Of the dried fruits, you can use: dried apricots - 2 pcs./day, figs - 1 pcs./day, prunes - 1 pcs./day. Ginger - 30 g / day. As for honey, it is recommended to use it no more than 5-10 g / day and not with hot drinks, because when heated, it forms 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, a substance that destroys liver cells. All green plants (spinach, sorrel, parsley, arugula, basil, all kinds of salads, etc.) are recommended to season with sour cream 10% or yogurt cooked at home.
Products such as beets, dark chocolate, should be neutralized with products containing calcium (milk and dairy products). From pasta you can use whole grain pasta - 60 g (in dry form) 2 times a week. Mushrooms (champignon, oyster mushroom) only cultivated - 250 g / day.
Diet and cooking technology
The diet should be 5-6 times a day with an interval between meals at 2-3 hours and the last meal 1.5-2 hours before bedtime.
- It is advisable to start breakfast with cereals with the addition of either 1 egg or 2 eggs in the form of an omelet in this volume. The volume of cereals is about 250-300 ml. Among the drinks for breakfast, you can use tea with milk, coffee with milk, cocoa with milk, chicory with milk. If you do not like adding milk to these drinks, you can combine them with hard cheese of 45% fat or cottage cheese.
- For lunch, it is recommended to make a fruit and berry-yogurt cocktail, you can add nuts and dried fruits, or use vegetable salads like Greek or Shopska or other similar salads.
- For lunch, you should use the first dishes (red borsch, green soup, chicken soup, various broths, soups, etc.) in a volume of 250-300 ml / day. The second recommended chicken breast, chicken (before heat treatment, remove the skin from the chicken), beef, veal, lean pork (in the form of meatballs, meatballs, brisole) without adding eggs to the minced meat. Since the avidin protein found in the egg blocks the absorption of iron in the meat, it is not recommended to combine it with vegetables in one meal. To prepare the meat, it is recommended to clean the meat from fascia and tendons, scroll 2 times in a meat grinder with the addition of onions and salt. It is advisable to use meat components with cereals or whole grain pasta. The interval between meat and vegetable dishes should preferably be extended to 1-1.5 hours.
- Among the drinks, dried fruit compotes or a rosehip broth, or fruit and berry jelly, or fresh, diluted with bottled drinking water, are recommended.
- For afternoon tea, you can use cottage cheese and fruit salad or fruit salad, or a salad of vegetables with a volume of 150 g / day.
- Dinner is recommended to start with fish dishes with the addition of a vegetable side dish. From drinks: tea, cocoa or chicory with the addition of milk. At night, you can drink a glass of biokefir or eat yogurt. It is advisable to drink water in a volume calculated by the formula: 20-30 ml of liquid per kilogram of body weight. A small correction: in the summer, the figure is 30 ml, in the spring and autumn - 25 ml, and in the winter - 20 ml. This liquid is used taking into account all the liquid you drink (drinks and first courses).
The technology of cooking is based on the fact that it is desirable to prepare all food products without adding fat. Vegetable fats (olive, corn oil) should be added to food just before serving the food on the table, because as a result of heating the vegetable oil, drying oil and carcinogenic substances are formed that adversely affect the walls of blood vessels and provoke not only the development of cardiovascular pathology in humans, but also oncological pathology. Types of cooking: steaming, boiling, stewing, baking.
To summarize. To restore normal blood sugar levels, it is necessary to adhere to certain nutritional recommendations, observe the diet and technological processing when preparing dishes.
Healthy TV, nutritionist Ekaterina Belova talks about the principles of diet for diabetes:
Diet Principles for High Blood Sugar
The blood glucose rate is 5.5 mmol / L. This is a prediabetic condition. It increases the likelihood, but is not a 100% indicator of the development of diabetes. For such people, table number 9 is recommended.
Blood sugar levels rise due to insufficient insulin. In the prediabetic state, the pancreas cannot work out the hormone norm. Sometimes pathological conditions arise in which insulin is not absorbed by the cells, which leads to the accumulation of sugar in the blood. With high sugar levels, physical activity and a suitable diet help. The principles of diet:
- Carbohydrate nutrition. Calorie limit to 1500-1800 kcal.
- The basis of nutrition is complex carbohydrates, vegetable and animal proteins, vegetables and fruits.
- You can’t starve.
- Diet - fractional: 5-6 times a day, small portions.
- Select foods with reduced calorie content, control the glycemic index.
- Simple carbohydrates are excluded from the menu.
A diet for lowering blood sugar is developed for each patient. The general condition, physical activity, lifestyle, food allergies are taken into account. The transition to a new regimen should be accessible and comfortable for the patient. Recommendations for diabetics and patients with high sugar:
- With high sugar, it is important to observe the ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Maintain a balance of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Approximate content: protein - 15-25%, lipids - 30-35%, carbohydrates - 45-60%. The number of calories is determined by the doctor.
- Eat at the same time.
- It is advisable to eat fresh vegetables - vitamins are removed during cooking.
- Choose a gentle cooking mode - avoid frying, cook, bake, steam.
- Drink at least 1.5 liters of fluid.
- Limit salt.
- Exclude alcohol and smoking.
- Give preference to fiber-rich foods.
- Do not eat food 2 hours before bedtime.
- The amount of carbohydrates is calculated taking into account physical activity.
A pregnant woman’s diet with high blood sugar is based on the same principles. Food should be lean, strong spices are unacceptable. It is advisable to regularly take measurements of blood sugar during pregnancy, and with a further increase, consult a doctor.
Before going to bed, do not drink milk and eat fruit. In pregnant women, the diet is saturated with boiled veal, white cheese, herbs and fresh vegetables. If you want sweets, there are biscuit cookies. You can pamper yourself and baby jelly from fresh or frozen berries.
High sugar vegetables
It is recommended to limit the use of vegetables with a high glycemic index - potatoes, beets. Give preference to fresh, boiled or baked vegetables. Before compiling a menu for a week, check the glycemic index. The GI table is in open sources. Without restrictions, you can eat the following vegetables:
- Pumpkin dishes are healthy and tasty with a low G.I.
- Bell pepper,
Fruits and berries
It is better to choose unsweetened varieties. To diversify your diet with high blood sugar, you can prepare refreshing drinks - lemonade, compote, fruit drink. The ban is subject to bananas, raisins, grapes, melon, figs. Dates are completely excluded - their GI is 109 units. Allowed:
- Most citrus fruits: orange, mandarin, lemon, grapefruit.
- Familiar fruits: apples, pears, plums, peaches, nectarines.
- Garden and forest berries: strawberries, raspberries, black and red currants, blueberries, blueberries, cranberries, cherries, cherries.
Fine and overripe fruits have more calories, so it’s better to give them up.
Meat and fish
With high blood sugar, lean meats are recommended:
- The meat should be lean, suitable: beef, chicken, rabbit. Turkey,
When cooking, excess fat is removed, and the skin is removed from the bird. You can dilute the diet with offal: liver, tongue, chicken hearts. Prohibited Meats:
- fatty pork and beef,
- sausages, sausages, cooked and smoked sausage.
To reduce sugar, seafood and low-fat fish are added to the diet: cod, pike, pikeperch, and carp.Squids, mussels, shrimps and scallops are perfect as an independent dish and a component of salads. You can’t fry meat and fish. Cooked and baked dishes are healthy and nutritious; they are popular among male patients, especially those suffering from restrictions.
Milk and blood sugar
It is necessary to exclude fat milk from the diet:
- cream, sour cream,
- butter, margarine, spread,
- fat milk
- yellow cheese.
These products are useful for pregnant women, children, so little by little they can be eaten with high blood sugar. But low-fat kefir, fermented baked milk, Health cheese, feta cheese, suluguni, low-fat cottage cheese and unsweetened yogurt are used at any time of the day. It is important to control the portion size, so despite the absence of restrictions, you do not need to drink a liter of kefir in one sitting.
Cereals and high sugar
Barley porridge is indispensable for diabetes.
Cereals are a healthy source of fiber and complex carbohydrates. They are the basis of the diet, well saturate, easy to prepare and available to people with different incomes. Recommended cereals to normalize sugar:
- pearl barley
- wheat and its variants: bulgur, couscous, arnautka.
High sugar is incompatible with semolina, as well as white varieties of rice. The benefits of these cereals do not block possible harm to the body. Instant cereals and granola are also harmful. They include stabilizers and preservatives, a large number of sweeteners. To reduce blood sugar, it is better to choose coarse grits.
It is forbidden to eat fatty soups on meat broths - hodgepodge, borscht, lagman. Any first course is prepared without adding meat. You can boil a piece separately, and before serving crumble directly into a plate. It is useful to eat pickle, okroshka, mushroom and bean soup, borscht on vegetable broth, puree soup made from green peas. Fatty broths increase sugar.
- For dessert, you can berry mousse without sugar. It is allowed to cook sorbet, berry mousse, jelly candies.
- You can eat bran and rye bread. Baking with white flour is unacceptable.
- Olive and vegetable oil can be added to food a little.
- Eggs are boiled, steamed, baked. With a high level of "bad" cholesterol, yolks are subject to restrictions.
- Shop sauces, fast food, mayonnaise, negatively affect glucose.
With high blood sugar, you can not eat rolls, sweets, bars, cakes and pastries with fat cream.
To lower blood sugar, it is necessary to regulate the portion sizes:
- stewed vegetables, sliced, mashed potatoes - up to 150 g,
- the first dish is 200-250 g,
- meat products or fish - 70 g,
- bread - 1 piece,
- liquid - 1 cup.
- Fish cutlets are good for breakfast. Grated carrots, oatmeal on the water,
- buckwheat porridge, boiled egg,
- low-fat cottage cheese with peach,
- fishcake, tomato,
- barley, white cheese, vegetables,
- steam omelet with mushrooms, vegetable salad,
- steamed oatmeal, kefir, apricot.
- an Apple,
- cottage cheese without sugar,
- a piece of suluguni,
- vegetable mix,
- orange or grapefruit.
- pickle, baked beef, cabbage salad,
- borsch, millet porridge, steam cutlet, cucumber salad and green peas,
- cabbage soup, stewed cabbage with chicken,
- mushroom soup, warm seafood salad, steam fish,
- pea soup puree, turkey and grilled vegetables, tomato and mozzarella salad,
- bean soup, stuffed peppers, tomato and cucumber salad,
- zucchini and potato soup, potato casserole, carrot salad with nuts.
- Sugar-free yogurt for an afternoon snack, great snack. Fruit salad,
- sugar free yogurt
- a handful of berries
- fermented baked milk,
- cheese casserole.
- omelet with vegetables, baked fillet,
- turkey meatballs, vegetable sliced,
- zucchini casserole, steam beef patty,
- grilled fish, baked peppers,
- cutlet, pumpkin porridge, salad,
- seafood barbecue, white cheese, tomato,
- boiled beef, salad with greens and eggs.
Cottage cheese casserole
- Rub a packet of low-fat cottage cheese without sugar through a sieve.
- Add 2 yolks, lemon zest, vanilla, cinnamon and 100 ml of milk, mix.
- Beat to peak 2 protein with a pinch of salt.
- Boil the chicken, chop finely.
- Cook 4 eggs and 100 g of green beans, bake carrots. Cut in equal cubes.
- Peel the green apple, cut, add to the salad.
- For dressing, mix low-fat yogurt, mustard, soy sauce. Add with salad, salt and mix. Garnish with greens.
A high blood sugar can be caused by overwork, heredity, and chronic diseases. Proper nutrition with high blood sugar only at first is difficult. A little imagination in the kitchen and diet planning will help you to avoid difficulties.
Any food raises blood sugar, and work hard to lower it.
Menu for high blood sugar for a week and every day
An increase in blood sugar is an important symptom that requires special attention. Quite often, such a violation is diagnosed by accident. In certain cases, an increase in blood sugar is reflected in various manifestations.
Lowering blood glucose can be done in various ways, for example, through lifestyle changes. Doctors say that treatment of any disease will not bring the expected effect if dietary nutrition is not followed during the use of medicines.
With the help of diets and medications, an approximate period for normalizing blood sugar is established. In recent years, every 50th person in the world has diabetes. With high blood sugar, diet is an essential component to normalize the general condition and stabilize glucose levels.
Signs of diabetes and related diseases
Type 1 diabetes occurs because the pancreas ceases to produce enough insulin. This pathology is manifested due to the pathological process in the gland tissue, its β cells die. People with type 1 diabetes become insulin dependent and cannot live normally without injections.
In type 2 diabetes, the volume of insulin in the blood remains at a normal level, but its penetration into the cells is impaired. This is because the fat deposits that are on the surface of the cells deform the membrane and block the receptors for binding to this hormone. Thus, type 2 diabetes is non-insulin dependent, so there is no need for injections.
An increase in blood sugar occurs when the body's ability to absorb insulin is impaired. Due to the fact that the hormone is not distributed correctly, it is concentrated in the blood.
Such violations are usually promoted by:
- liver disease
- high cholesterol
- chronic pancreatitis,
- hereditary predisposition.
Doctors believe that normal blood sugar is 3.4-5.6 mmol / L. This indicator can change throughout the day, which is a natural process. It must be added that the following factors affect sugar levels:
- severe illnesses.
The one who is pursued by constant ailments, fatigue and nervousness is often diagnosed with this disease.
If timely measures are taken, then the glucose level will return to normal. Hyperglycemia is an increase in sugar levels of more than 5.6 mmol / L. The fact that sugar is elevated can be said if several blood tests are done at a certain interval. If the blood stably exceeds 7.0 mmol, this indicates diabetes.
With a slightly increased level of blood sugar, you need a menu for every day.
There are a number of premises that indicate an excess of blood sugar:
- frequent urination
- weakness and lethargy,
- dry mouth, thirst,
- high appetite for weight loss,
- slow healing of scratches and wounds,
- weakening of immunity,
- decreased vision
- itchy skin.
Practice shows that these signs appear in turn, and not immediately. If a person sees these symptoms, they should undergo an examination as soon as possible to prevent negative health effects.
With an increase in blood sugar, it is important to know what you can eat and what should be constantly avoided. In many cases, dietary food treatment table according to Pevzner No. 9 is used. This diet makes it possible:
- normalize blood glucose
- lower cholesterol
- eliminate puffiness,
- improve blood pressure.
Such nutrition implies a decrease in caloric intake per day. The amount of vegetable fats and complex carbohydrates on the menu is also reduced. If you follow such a program, you must use products that replace sugar.
Various sweeteners on a chemical and plant basis are on the market. Diabetics should completely abandon cholesterol and extractive substances. Patients are shown vitamins, lipotropic substances and dietary fiber. All this is in cereals, fruits, cottage cheese and fish.
To prevent blood sugar from rising, you must completely abandon jam, ice cream, muffin, sweets and sugar. In addition, you do not need to eat goose and duck meat.
Excluded from the diet:
- baked milk,
- fatty fish species
- salted products
- sweet yogurt
- fermented baked milk.
High sugar is a contraindication for eating pasta, rice, heavy meat broths and semolina. No need to eat spicy and spicy snacks, pickled vegetables, as well as various seasonings.
People with high sugar should not eat grapes and raisins, as well as sweet fruits, including bananas. Alcoholic beverages and sugar juices are also prohibited.
The menu with high sugar involves products from whole grain cereals, lean meat and fish. In addition, a lot of fruits and vegetables, various greens, several types of cereals should be present in the diet. You can eat eggs in moderation.
People with diabetes need to consume a certain amount of dairy products with a low level of fat. Dietary sweets are allowed, but with long breaks.
The menu should include fresh salads, which are made from fruits and vegetables, and seasoned with olive oil, homemade yogurt or low-fat sour cream.
Diabetics need to decide on a sample menu for a week. For breakfast, you can eat oatmeal with a little butter. Also, diabetics are allowed to eat rye bread sandwiches with low-fat cheese and unsweetened tea. After a few hours, a person can eat an apple or some fat cottage cheese.
For lunch, you need to cook soup and the second, for example, buckwheat porridge with chicken cutlet. An afternoon snack consists of unsweetened fruits. For dinner, diabetics can eat a salad of vegetables with steam meat or fish, as well as tea or compote.
To reduce the level of sugar in the blood of a person, it is important to constantly calculate the daily calorie content of foods. Breakfast the first time you need around 8 in the morning. The calorie content of the first breakfast should be 20% of the daily calorie content, namely from 480 to 520 kilocalories.
The second breakfast should take place at 10 in the morning. Its calorie content is 10% of the daily volume, that is 240-260 kilocalories. Lunch starts at about 1 pm and accounts for about 30% of the daily calorie intake, which is equivalent to 730-760 calories.
Snack diabetic at 16 hours, an afternoon snack is approximately 10% of the daily calories, that is, 250-260 calories. Dinner - 20% of calories or 490-520 kilocalories. Dinner time is 18 hours or a little later.
If you really want to eat, you can make a late dinner at 20 pm. At this time, you can not consume more than 260 kilocalories.
It is important to study in detail the energy value of the products that are indicated in the calorie tables.
Based on these data, a menu for the week is compiled.
Table 9 for type 1 diabetes
People with type 1 diabetes need constant insulin injections. The patient should constantly monitor the administered enzyme and glucose level. Many people mistakenly believe that if you constantly inject insulin, the need to monitor your diet disappears. It is important to develop a diet that lowers blood sugar.
Doctors highlight the basic principles of dietary nutrition for type 1 diabetes:
- The use of vegetable carbohydrates. Easily digestible sugars are not allowed. You can use healthy side dishes for diabetics,
- Food should be frequent, but fractional. A day you need to eat about 5-6 times,
- A sugar substitute is used instead of sugar,
- Minimized intake of fats and carbohydrates is shown.
- All products must be boiled, baked or steamed,
- Counting bread units is required.
You can lower the sugar level if you regularly consume the following products:
- Berries and fruits,
- Cereal crops
- Corn and potatoes
- Products with sucrose.
Seaweed is also very beneficial for type 2 diabetes. You can cook soups and broths on low-fat fish and meat. Acid fruits are allowed. Only the doctor who carries out the treatment can allow sugar to be consumed.
With the permission of the attending physician, you can eat dairy products. It should be noted that the use of sour cream, cheese and cream is completely excluded. Spices and sauces should not be bitter and spicy.
Up to 40 g of vegetable oil and fat are allowed per day.
A diet with high blood sugar should be reduced to counting bread units - XE. A carbohydrate or bread unit is the amount of carbohydrate that focuses on the glycemic index, it is needed to balance the diet of those who have diabetes.
Conventionally, a bread unit is equal to 10 g of bread without fibers or 12 g with fibers. It is equivalent to 22-25 g of bread. This unit increases the concentration of glucose in the blood by about 1.5–2 mmol / L.
A diabetic should familiarize himself with a special table where there are clear designations of bread units in all types of product, namely in:
- Bakery products
For example, in a piece of white bread is 20 g XE, in a piece of Borodino or rye bread - 25 g XE. About 15 g of bread units are in a tablespoon:
The largest amount of XE is contained in such products:
- A glass of kefir - 250 ml XE,
- Beets - 150 g
- Three lemons or a slice of watermelon - 270 g,
- Three carrots - 200 g,
- One and a half cups of tomato juice - 300 g XE.
Such a table must be found and make up your diet on it. To reduce blood sugar, you need to eat from 3 to 5 XE for breakfast, a second breakfast - not more than 2 XE. Dinner and lunch also consist of 3-5 XE.
What foods increase blood sugar: table and diet principles for diabetes
The glucose concentration is determined using a blood test. However, it can be taken from a finger or vein. A decrease in glucose is called hypoglycemia, and an increase is called hyperglycemia. An ideal norm is considered an indicator - 3.3-5.5 mmol / l.
Blood sugar in children meets the standards of adults from 5 years of age
But given the age of a person and the physiological characteristics of the body, it can change. For example, in children under 14 years of age, the indicator may be below normal. People after 40-50 have a slightly higher rate..
That the analysis was reliable, it is handed over in the morning, on an empty stomach.If the result shows a high level, for example 7-8 mmol / l, then you should worry.
Additional examinations should be done to rule out the disease. Symptoms of diabetes in children can be found here.
The approximate norm of blood glucose in people of different ages:
- newborns - 2.5-4 mmol / l,
- children under 14 years old - 3-5.5 mmol / l,
- 14-60 years old - 3.3-5.5 mmol / l,
- 60-90 years - 4.5-6.5 mmol / l,
- older than 90 years - 4.5-6.7 mmol / l.
Human gender does not affect glucose concentration. People who have a genetic predisposition to the disease should regularly monitor their sugar levels. And people already with diabetes are constantly tested and undergo additional examinations.
Features of the diet for diabetes
When dieting, it is important to know which foods increase blood sugar. For most diabetics, this is the only treatment. Dishes in the diet should not contain a large amount of carbohydrates and fats, which provoke hyperglycemia.
The allowed foods for diabetes are:
- Raw nuts.
- Soups on vegetable broth.
- Lentils, beans, peas.
- Tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, celery, zucchini, broccoli.
- Oranges, pears, apples, lemons, plums, cherries, blueberries.
- Dry fruits (pre-soaked in warm water).
- Buckwheat, millet porridge, oatmeal.
- Fresh juices, water.
Vegetables are recommended to be consumed fresh, without heat treatment. Diet with high sugar allows the use of fruits and berries not sweet varieties. The prohibited component is replaced by substances such as fructose, sorbitol, xylitol, saccharin. Sweeteners are often not recommended, as they are addictive.
Diabetes mellitus occurs more often at a young age. People do not control the food they eat. Glucose is now everywhere, and if it is also added to food and drinks, the daily norm is exceeded at times.
The level of glycemia in the blood should be controlled by each person. Hyperglycemia can occur at any time..
People who abuse alcohol, sweets, and confectionery are at risk. At first, severe fatigue, nervousness, dizziness, and a decrease in vital activity appear.
Then these symptoms will become more serious if you do not consult a doctor.
Patients with diabetes should always have at hand information on the glycemic index of products. It is on the basis of this indicator that a diet is built.
There is a certain range of GI:
- To 50 - lowered,
- 50-70 - medium
- Above 70 is tall.
A low indicator indicates that the main diet of the patient contains healthy dishes. On average, you can observe a slight deviation from the diet. At high rates - complete non-compliance with the diet.
The 6 best diabetic foods in the video below:
What will happen if the diet is not followed
Failure to follow a diet can cause serious consequences. Among them:
- Diabetic coma - the reaction of the body to a sharp increase in glucose. It is accompanied by confusion, respiratory failure, a pronounced smell of acetone, lack of urination. Coma can occur with any type of diabetes.
- Ketoacidosis - provokes its appearance a large amount of waste in the blood. A characteristic sign is a violation of all functions in the body, which leads to loss of human consciousness. Usually appears with type 1 diabetes.
- Hypoglycemic coma - occurs due to a sharp decrease in glucose. The use of alcohol, non-compliance with the diet, and the systematic use of sweeteners provoke this phenomenon. It occurs with all types of diabetes.
Blood sugar boosting foods, categorically can not be used by people who have suspected hyperglycemia. A small amount can provoke a sharp increase in glycemia. A person may lose consciousness, and will face the development of various pathologies.
How to stop vomiting in a child, read here.
Sugar Enhancing Food Groups
Foods prohibited with high sugar:
People who eat junk food are more likely than others to have diabetes.
- pasta, bread, starch, flour, some cereals, cereals,
- potatoes, carrots, beets, corn,
- fermented baked milk, cream, filled yogurts, whole milk, cheese,
- some fruits, berries - bananas, grapes, tangerines,
- sugar, honey, chocolate,
- preservatives, smoked meats,
- fish and meat products.
For any type of diabetes, these components must be discarded. Even consuming small portions can dramatically cause hyperglycemia. Learn about foods that lower sugar levels from this publication.
GI Product Tables
We offer a table with a list of products that increase blood sugar.
High GI is contained in:
|Creamy ice cream||91|
Foods with an average GI:
Low GI Food Products:
A table of products that increase blood sugar will help control the daily rate. Moreover, they can be replaced with healthy food.
How to organize a wholesome and wholesome diet
A comparative table of foods with low and high GI will help determine which foods increase blood sugar and which don’t. Most components with a high glycemic index can be replaced with tasty and healthy ones.with indicators up to 70. Thus, a person can make proper and safe nutrition.
|High GI Products||GI||Low GI Products||GI|
|A pineapple||64||Dried apricots||35|
|Baked potato||95||Boiled potatoes||65|
|Boiled carrots||85||Raw carrots||35|
|Cereal bread||90||Black yeast bread||65|
|Canned fruits||92||Fresh Apricots||20|
|Ice cream||80||Natural yogurt||35|
|Oat cookies||55||Sunflower seeds||8|
Products with high blood sugar should contain many vitamins and low carbohydrates. It is recommended to use them fresh, as this preserves more vitamins and nutrients.
Diet for diabetes is the only way out for many patients. If you do not control the daily intake of sugar, severe consequences can occur.
There are a large number of dishes with a low glycemic index. Therefore, the diet of patients with diabetes can be developed in such a way that it contains all the necessary useful substances, is nutritious and balanced.
Based on medical experience, I can say that the diet helps many to live freely with diabetes. Only you need to regularly take tests, monitor all indicators. If the norm is exceeded, be sure to consult a doctor.
In addition, we suggest watching a video about products contraindicated for diabetics:
Hyperglycemia is quite common among people of different ages, as people rarely think about their own diet.
To prevent the development of diabetes, need to eat low glycemic index foods. And diabetics should know what foods to eat with high sugar. Dietary nutrition is quite diverse.
Allowed the use of fruits, vegetables, soybeans, nuts. The main thing is to exclude refined foods and substitutes from the diet.
Daily menu for high blood sugar
People with diabetes are not suitable for a normal diet with lots of carbohydrates.
A low-carb diet with high blood sugar has a direct effect on the course of the disease, prevents possible complications, and strict adherence to it allows you to stabilize the level of glucose in the blood after a few days. Therefore, it is recommended for patients with any type of diabetes, regardless of the severity of its course.
The basic principles of diet
For each patient, a diet with a low carbohydrate content is developed individually, taking into account his age, weight, blood glucose and physical activity, but there are several general nutritional rules that must be observed by all:
- daily meals should include an unchanged amount of carbohydrates (45%), proteins (20%) and fats (35%),
- it’s only worth it when you really feel hunger,
- eating should be stopped when a slight satiety is already felt,
- in no case should you overeat,
- it is necessary to exclude from the diet fast-acting carbohydrates (carrots, bananas, potatoes, chocolate, sweets, sodas, etc.).
Eating with high blood sugar should be regular - this is another important factor that patients should consider.
If for some reason it is not possible to eat on time and the meal is delayed for a long time (more than an hour), then a small snack is needed.
If blood sugar is elevated, it is strictly forbidden to use the following groups of products:
- pickled vegetables,
- smoked meats
- animal fats
- fatty fish and caviar,
- fried foods
- some seasonings
- butter baking,
- sweet drinks
- ice cream.
From the menu it is necessary to exclude very sweet fresh fruits and dried fruits (bananas, pineapples, dates, raisins), as well as some sour and bitter fruits (grapefruits, lemons). It is worth giving up on sweet dairy products, sharp cheeses and fat sour cream. Rice, corn and semolina dishes are strictly prohibited.
The basis of the diet in people with high glucose are vegetables. They are non-nutritive, but they contain a lot of minerals, vitamins and fiber. But there are limitations in their use. We are talking about sweet vegetables and dishes prepared from them.
- Bell pepper,
- Tomatoes after heat treatment
- tomato sauce,
All legumes are also classified as restricted foods.
You can eat everything that does not increase blood sugar: unsweetened vegetables and fruits, herbs, garlic, fresh onions (in limited quantities), dietary meat, mushrooms, and some cereals.
All vegetables that contain a minimum of carbohydrates should be on the menu of a person with high blood sugar, namely:
- Fresh tomatoes
- hot peppers,
- cabbage (sea, colored, white).
You can eat only fresh, stewed or boiled vegetables.
It is possible to gain the necessary daily norm of proteins only due to meat products:
- lamb, lean pork, rabbit, beef, veal,
- chicken, turkey meat,
- low-fat varieties of fish.
The meat should be stewed, steamed or baked. Once a day, you can eat 1-2 eggs (preferably without yolk). The menu must include fat-free cottage cheese, from which you can cook casseroles, puddings and steam cheesecakes.
- barley grits,
- brown rice
- barley and millet (in limited quantities).
Ready cereals should be unsweetened, cooked in water with a little milk. The daily rate of bread from rye flour or bran should not exceed 300g.
After eating, you can have a snack with low-carb fruits: apples, strawberries, watermelon, cranberries, but not more than 300 g per day. As a snack, raw or slightly fried sunflower seeds are suitable.
The permitted spice includes only pepper and salt.
People with high blood sugar are often overweight, so a diet for them is a wonderful opportunity not only to lower blood glucose levels, to establish metabolic processes in the body, but also to lose weight.
Features of a diet for pregnant women with high blood sugar
In women in the position, breaks between meals should not exceed three hours (a break for sleep - no more than ten hours). Food should be low-calorie, but nutritional enough. For breakfast, they need to eat cereals, stewed vegetables, salads, whole rye bread - fiber-rich foods, at lunchtime and in the evening - lean meat and fish dishes.
Pregnant women should drink plenty of fluids - up to eight glasses a day. If there is heartburn, then a small amount of raw sunflower seeds will not hurt. Do not drink milk at night and eat fruit. Margarine, cream cheese and sauces during pregnancy are best excluded from the diet.
Be sure to consult your doctor about increasing the diet and inclusion of additional products containing a large amount of vitamins and minerals. If the blood glucose indicator does not allow this, then a medication complex of vitamins will be prescribed.