Stimulates the release of insulin from functionally active pancreatic beta cells. It reduces the level of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting glucose concentration in patients with moderate and severe forms of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Reduces post-food hyperglycemia, increases glucose tolerance and clearance of free fluid (to a small extent). The insulinotropic response develops within 30 minutes after oral administration, the duration of action with a single dose reaches 24 hours. It does not affect the lipid profile of blood plasma.
In experiments on rats and mice at doses 75 times higher than MPD, it does not induce carcinogenesis and does not affect fertility (rats). Studies performed on bacteria, and in vivo , did not reveal mutagenic properties.
The quick-acting form is absorbed quickly and completely. Eating does not affect the total absorption, but slows it down for 40 minutes. Cmax determined 1-3 hours after a single dose. T1/2 is 2–4 hours. After taking the slow-acting form, it appears in the blood after 2-3 hours, Cmax It is reached after 6–12 hours. It binds to blood plasma proteins by 98–99%. The volume of distribution after iv administration is 11 L, average T1/2 - 2-5 hours. The total Cl after a single iv injection is 3 l / h. Biotransformed in the liver (with the initial passage - slightly). Less than 10% is excreted unchanged in urine and feces, about 90% is excreted in the form of metabolites with urine (80%) and feces (10%).
Side effects of the substance Glipizide
For the slow acting form of glipizide:
From the nervous system and sensory organs: dizziness, headache, insomnia, drowsiness, anxiety, depression, confusion, gait disturbance, paresthesia, hypersthesia, veil in front of the eyes, eye pain, conjunctivitis, retinal hemorrhage.
From the cardiovascular system and blood (hematopoiesis, hemostasis): syncope, arrhythmia, arterial hypertension, sensation of hot flashes.
From the side of metabolism: hypoglycemia.
From the digestive tract: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region, dyspepsia, constipation, an admixture of blood in the stool.
On the part of the skin: rash, urticaria, itching.
From the respiratory system: rhinitis, pharyngitis, dyspnea.
From the genitourinary system: dysuria, decreased libido.
Other: thirst, trembling, peripheral edema, non-localized pain throughout the body, arthralgia, myalgia, cramps, sweating.
For the fast-acting form of glipizide:
From the nervous system and sensory organs: headache, dizziness, drowsiness.
From the cardiovascular system and blood (hematopoiesis, hemostasis: leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, hemolytic or aplastic anemia.
From the side of metabolism: diabetes insipidus, hyponatremia, porphyrin disease.
From the digestive tract: nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, constipation, cholestatic hepatitis (yellow staining of the skin and sclera, discoloration of the stool and darkening of the urine, pain in the right hypochondrium).
On the part of the skin: erythema, maculopapular rash, urticaria, photosensitivity.
Other: increase in the concentration of LDH, alkaline phosphatase, indirect bilirubin.
Mineral and glucocorticoids, amphetamines, anticonvulsants (hydantoin derivatives), asparaginase, baclofen, calcium antagonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide), chlortalidone, oral contraceptives, epinephrine, ethacinic acid, giurimide, thymoside, thymegium, weakened effectiveness glands, triamteren and other drugs that cause hyperglycemia. Anabolic steroids and androgens enhance hypoglycemic activity. Indirect anticoagulants, NSAIDs, chloramphenicol, clofibrate, guanethidine, MAO inhibitors, probenecid, sulfonamides, rifampicin increase the concentration of the free fraction in the blood (due to displacement from plasma proteins) and accelerate biotransformation. Ketonazole, miconazole, sulfinpyrazone block inactivation and increase hypoglycemia. Against the background of alcohol, the development of a disulfiram-like syndrome (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache) is possible. Antithyroid and myelotoxic drugs increase the likelihood of developing agranulocytosis, the latter, in addition - thrombocytopenia.
Treatment: drug withdrawal, glucose intake and / or a change in diet with mandatory monitoring of glycemia, with severe hypoglycemia (coma, epileptiform seizures) - immediate hospitalization, the introduction of a 50% glucose solution in / in a stream with simultaneous infusion (in / in drip) of 10% solution glucose to ensure a blood glucose concentration above 5.5 mmol / l, glycemia monitoring is necessary for 1-2 days after the patient leaves the coma. Dialysis is ineffective.
Price in pharmacies
Check out the price of Glipizide in 2018 and cheap analogues >>> The price of Glipizide in different pharmacies can vary significantly. This is due to the use of cheaper components and the pricing policy of the pharmacy chain.
Read the official information on the drug Glipizid, the instructions for use of which include general information and the treatment regimen. The text is provided for informational purposes only and cannot serve as a substitute for medical advice.
Oral hypoglycemic agent, a sulfonylurea derivative of the second generation. Stimulates the secretion of insulin by β-cells of the pancreas, increases the release of insulin. Increases the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin. It has a hypolipidemic, fibrinolytic effect, inhibits platelet aggregation. After oral administration, glipizide is rapidly and completely absorbed from the digestive tract.
Binding to plasma proteins (mainly with albumin) is 98-99%.
Metabolized in the liver. Less than 10% is excreted in urine and feces unchanged, about 90% is excreted in urine (80%) and with feces (10%) as metabolites.
Mode of application
For adults: Set individually depending on the clinical picture of the disease. The initial dose is 2.5-5 mg 1 time / day 15-30 minutes before breakfast. If necessary, the dose can be gradually (with a certain interval) increased by 2.5-5 mg / day. Daily doses of more than 15 mg should be divided into 2 doses.
Maximum doses: single - 15 mg, daily - 40 mg.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent) in patients with overweight or normal body weight with diet therapy ineffective.
General information about the substance
Glipizide is the main trade name of a drug containing the substance of the same name, but it is part of other drugs.
The component is characterized by a pronounced hypoglycemic effect, which is achieved due to its effect on pancreatic cells. The result of this is the active synthesis of insulin.
The substance is represented by a white powder without a pronounced odor. It is not characterized by solubility in water or alcohol. The component actively interacts with blood proteins, being converted into metabolites. Excretion is carried out by the kidneys.
Glipizide is produced in tablets with an active substance content of 5 and 10 mg. Auxiliary components may vary depending on the name of the drug.
- From the endocrine system: rarely - hypoglycemia (especially in elderly, weakened patients, with irregular eating, drinking alcohol, impaired liver and kidney function).
- From the digestive system: nausea, diarrhea, extremely rare - toxic hepatitis.
- From the hemopoietic system: in some cases - thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis.
- Allergic reactions: rarely - skin rash, itching.
- Other: headache.
Instructions for use
The drug is intended to combat type 2 diabetes, if non-drug methods of treatment do not bring results.
The tablets are taken orally, shortly before meals, with the medicine washed down with water. Dosage depends on the individual characteristics of the patient. It is usually recommended to start with a serving of 5 mg per day.
With insufficient effectiveness and good tolerance, the dosage can be gradually increased to 15 mg per day. It is allowed to take the medicine at a time, you can also divide the serving into several doses.
In some cases, the dose of Glipizide should be reduced. Therefore, treatment should not be started without the recommendation of a specialist - without medical knowledge it is very difficult to evaluate the features of the clinical picture.
Skipping pills is undesirable, but if this happens, do not take a double dose.
Contraindications and potential harm
Despite the benefits of this medicine for diabetes, there are cases when its use is prohibited.
The main contraindications of Glipizide include:
- intolerance to the composition,
- diabetes ketoacidosis
- diabetic coma
- natural feeding
- type 1 diabetes
- surgical interventions
- serious injuries
The ban on the use of the drug is due to the risk of undesirable consequences that may occur.
Among them mention:
- Depressed mood
- pain in the eyes
- retinal hemorrhages,
- violations in the digestive tract,
- skin rashes,
- pressure increase
- decreased libido
- increased sweating,
Many of these violations are not dangerous, but bring significant discomfort. Others may even cause the patient to die if medical attention is not provided. Therefore, before using drugs containing glipizide, you should consult your doctor and find out how to take them correctly. But even if the remedy is prescribed by a specialist, you need to carefully monitor your well-being. Detection of adverse symptoms is a reason to seek help.
The drug in question is not always allowed to be used. If there are contraindications, it is necessary to replace it with another, with a different composition.
Among the main analogues of Glipizide can be called:
- Glibenclamide. The drug is characterized by a hypoglycemic effect, which is achieved due to the content of glipizide in it. This means that Minidiab is a complete analogue of the considered tablets in composition, and its instructions are the same. The medicine is one of the expensive ones; you will have to pay about 1,500 rubles for packaging.
- Metformin. Its active ingredient is the substance metformin. It interferes with the active production of glucose by the liver, and also increases the susceptibility of tissues to insulin. The drug is on sale in the form of tablets with a cost of 90-105 rubles.
- Maninil. The basis of this drug is glibenclamide. Its release will be arbitrary in tablet form. In addition to hypoglycemic, it has a cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic effect. The price varies from 95 to 120 rubles.
- Glucophage. Its main ingredient is metformin. The drug has a tablet form, intended for oral administration. It has an inherent hypoglycemic effect. They are sold according to the prescription of a specialist at a price of about 120 rubles.
- Glidiab. This is another composite analogue with the same active substance. Promotes the synthesis of insulin in the body, thereby reducing blood glucose. The cost is about 100-120 rubles.
Video from the expert:
All these drugs can cause side effects, the most dangerous of which is hypoglycemia. They also have contraindications. Therefore, you need to use them only with the permission of the doctor and according to the instructions. It is not allowed to select a substitute for the prescribed drug on your own, it can be dangerous.
Tablets of 0.005 g (5 mg) in a package of 30 pieces.
The information on the page you are viewing is created for informational purposes only and does not promote self-medication in any way. The resource is intended to familiarize healthcare professionals with additional information about certain medicines, thereby increasing their level of professionalism. Drug use Glipizide without fail provides for consultation with a specialist, as well as his recommendations on the method of use and dosage of your chosen medicine.
Cost, reviews and analogues
Since glipizide is an active component, many drugs containing such a substance can be found on the pharmacological market of Russia. For example, Glucotrol CL and Glibenez Retard. Depending on the form of release, the price of the drug Glucotrol CL ranges from 280 to 360 rubles, and Glibenez Retard - from 80 to 300 rubles.
Reviews of most diabetics who took such a remedy are satisfactory. However, many noted that the therapeutic effect of glipizide decreases over time, so it is often used in combination with other diabetic drugs. Among the advantages of the drug can be distinguished ease of use and the loyal prices of drugs containing glipizide.
In the case when one drug is not suitable due to contraindications or negative reactions, the doctor prescribes an analogue. These medicines include:
Without the approval of a doctor, self-medication is not worth it. Preparations containing glipizide can have a negative effect on the human body. With proper use of the drug, you can keep the sugar level normal and get rid of the symptoms of diabetes. But also we must not forget about exercise therapy for diabetes and proper nutrition.
In the video in this article, the doctor will talk about drugs for diabetes.