Changes in organs and systems in diabetes

The development of ophthalmopathy is observed against the background of the progression of diabetes mellitus, which is the main ailment. Pathology is caused by the occurrence of disorders in the processes of carbohydrate metabolism in the human body.

The appearance of diabetic ophthalmopathy is associated with the occurrence of physiological, biochemical and immune disorders in the body. One of the most common disorders in the progression of diabetes is changes in the properties of blood and changes in the vascular wall of the circulatory system.

These changes provoke the development of pathological processes that lead to the appearance of prolonged chronic oxygen starvation in the tissues of the organ of vision.

Lack of oxygen leads to damage to the retina. Diabetic retinopathy begins to develop in the body. This pathology, according to medical statistics, accounts for about 70% of all identified cases of development of diabetic ophthalmopathy.

The remaining 30% of reported cases of diabetic ophthalmopathy account for the development of:

  • diabetic cataract
  • rubeous glaucoma,
  • chronic blepharitis
  • cholazion
  • transient decrease in visual acuity.

If there is diabetes in the body, patients should remember that the lack of control over the blood sugar level contributes to the progression of severe complications in the body against the background of the underlying disease.

Changes in the organ of vision with the development of diabetic ophthalmopathy

Diabetic retinopathy, the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, is a retinal lesion of the organ of vision. This complication is most likely to occur in type 1 diabetes. In the process of progression of the disease changes in the vascular wall leads to a significant weakening of vision or its complete loss.

The development of this type of diabetic ophthalmopathy as diabetic retinopathy leads to changes in the vascular wall of the capillaries of the eyeball, at the same time there is an active growth of newly formed vessels.

In addition to these processes, the occurrence of pathologies in the area of ​​the macula is observed in the eyeball.

The development of diabetic ophthalmopathy can manifest itself in several types of pathologies of the optic nerve.

The development of this or that form of pathology largely depends on the degree of progression of diabetes. In addition, the form of the manifested pathology may depend on the individual characteristics of the patient's body.

The most common pathologies in the optic nerve are:

  1. Atrophy of the optic nerves is a pathology that accompanies the development of diabetes in adolescence. This pathology is characterized by a progressive decrease in visual acuity, a narrowing of the angle of the field of view and blanching of the discs of photosensitive nerves.
  2. Papillopathy occurs with decompensation of the underlying ailment, the development of pathology is accompanied by the appearance of sharp attacks of blurred vision. Additionally, the development of this pathology is characterized by the appearance of edema of the photosensitive nerve and corpus luteum.
  3. The anterior and posterior neuropathy of ischemic genesis is characterized by the appearance of such characteristic signs as a one-sided decrease in visual acuity and the appearance of such a phenomenon as sectoral loss in the visual field.

The outcome of the development of pathological processes developing in the organ of vision is partial or complete loss of vision and partial or complete atrophy of the photosensitive nerve.


The skin of persons with decompensated diabetes mellitus as a result of dehydration is dry, wrinkled, rough and flaky on the palms and soles, its turgor is reduced. With long-term diabetes, almost 80% of people have various dermatoses associated with metabolic disorders, a decrease in the protective function of the skin and impaired microcirculation. In children with the labile course of diabetes mellitus, a characteristic blush (diabetic rubeosis) is noted - the result of the expansion of skin capillaries - giving patients a deceptive appearance of blooming health. Patients with “experience” may develop diabetic dermopathy in the form of large atrophic, hyperpigmented, flaky spots on the front surface of the legs. With the development of severe diabetic angiopathies, trophic ulcers on the skin of the legs and feet are observed.

Xanthomatosis edit |

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a disease of the endocrine system, for which a characteristic feature is an increased concentration of glucose in the blood, which develops due to destructive processes in specific pancreatic cells that secrete the hormone - insulin, as a result of which there is an absolute lack of insulin in the body

Diabetic foot syndrome

Diabetic foot syndrome is one of the complications of diabetes, along with diabetic ophthalmopathy, nephropathy, etc., which is a pathological condition that occurs as a result of damage to the peripheral nervous system, arterial and microvasculature, which manifests itself as purulent-necrotic, ulcerative processes and damage to the bones and joints of the foot

Diabetes mellitus is a term that combines endocrine diseases, a characteristic feature of which is the lack of action of the hormone insulin. The main symptom of diabetes is the development of hyperglycemia - an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood, which is persistent

Diabetes Symptoms

The effectiveness of the treatment of diabetes directly depends on the time of detection of this disease. With type 2 diabetes mellitus, the disease can cause only mild complaints for a long time, which the patient may not pay attention to. Symptoms of diabetes can be erased, making diagnosis difficult. The sooner the correct diagnosis is made and treatment is started, the lower the risk of developing complications of diabetes

Insulin is the hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The name insulin comes from the Latin insula - island

Endocrinologist consultation

Specialists of the Northwestern Endocrinology Center carry out the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the endocrine system. The endocrinologists of the center in their work are based on the recommendations of the European Association of Endocrinologists and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Modern diagnostic and medical technologies provide an optimal treatment result.

Watch the video: Insulin and Glucagon. Biology for All. FuseSchool (April 2020).