In the modern world, everyone should know how to be tested for diabetes. At the moment, about 500 million people suffer from this disease.
But this is not the final figure, as the current generation is increasingly prone to obesity, associated diabetes. This is due to a sedentary lifestyle, malnutrition and a hereditary predisposition.
This article will help you find out which methods for diagnosing diabetes mellitus exist and which of them are more reliable.
What is diabetes and its types?
The disease is associated with a malfunction of the endocrine system. In diabetes, insulin production completely stops or decreases, as a result hyperglycemia develops - a rapid increase in blood glucose concentration. Currently, there are three types of diabetes.
The first type of disease is insulin-dependent. In this case, there is a violation of the function of the beta cells of the pancreas, as a result they cannot produce the hormone important for the body - insulin, which helps glucose to be absorbed into peripheral cells and tissues. Therefore, it remains and accumulates in the blood, and a starving organism begins to break down fats and proteins, ketone bodies are by-products. They negatively affect the functioning of organs, especially the brain. This type of diabetes is called juvenile because it is common in people under 30 years old.
The second type of pathology does not depend on the production of insulin. The reason for the appearance of this type of diabetes is a violation of the sensitivity of peripheral cells and tissues to insulin. That is, the pancreas produces the hormone in the right amount, but the body responds incorrectly to it. The second type of disease develops in people over 40 years of age who lead an inactive lifestyle and / or are obese. It is the most common form of the disease, since 90% of all diabetics suffer from it.
Gestational diabetes is a disease that occurs in expectant mothers during the period of gestation. This is due to hormonal changes in the body of a pregnant woman. Such a pathology can occur at 14-26 weeks of gestation and manifest itself as an increase in blood sugar.
Often, the disease goes away on its own after the birth of the baby, but sometimes it can go into the second type of diabetes.
When should sugar be tested?
Diabetes mellitus has many symptomatic manifestations. Therefore, noticing suspicious body signals, you need to urgently go to the doctor, who will be able to prescribe an immediate diagnosis.
In addition to the symptoms listed below, women and men may have signs of diabetes associated with the reproductive system. In women, the menstrual cycle is disrupted, burning and itching in the genital area occurs, with complications infertility develops.
Men have problems with ejaculation, with potency, itching occurs in the groin and perineum. In both cases, a hormonal imbalance occurs: in women, testosterone increases, and in men it decreases.
And so, the main symptoms of diabetes are:
- Dry mouth, severe thirst and frequent urination. Since there is an increase in the load on the kidneys, which must remove sugar from the body, they need more fluid. They begin to take water from cells and tissues, as a result, a person constantly wants to drink and relieve themselves.
- Dizziness, drowsiness, and irritability. Glucose is an energy source for the whole body. But since it does not enter the required amount into tissues and cells, the body loses energy and is depleted. The breakdown products of fats and proteins, ketone bodies, begin to affect the functioning of the brain, and as a result, the patient complains of frequent dizziness.
- Numbness and tingling of legs and arms. With the progression of diabetes, it negatively affects the nerve endings, primarily limbs. As a result, the patient feels such symptoms.
- Visual impairment. The development of pathology over time leads to the defeat of small vessels located in the retina of the eyeballs. A person can see a blurry picture, black dots and other defects.
- Disruption of the digestive tract. As a rule, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, excessive gas formation (flatulence), and a change in taste appear.
- Other signs: persistent hunger, high blood pressure, skin infections, rapid weight loss.
Methods for diagnosing diabetes
There are a sufficient number of different tests with which you can find out if the patient has diabetes.
Among them, the specialist should choose the most suitable option. Blood sugar test. It is handed over in the morning to an empty stomach.
In this case, before taking the test, it is forbidden to drink tea or coffee. Normal values for an adult are from 3.9 to 5.5 mmol / L.
Also, the main methods for examining blood for glucose are:
- Analysis of urine. The study is carried out using special test strips. True, their cost is quite expensive - at least 500 rubles. This diagnostic method is not very effective due to the fact that it shows only a high level of glucose - at least 180 mg / l.
- Analysis for glycated hemoglobin. The examination is carried out for three months to determine the average blood sugar level. It is not the most convenient method, since it takes a long time.
- Glucose tolerance test. Two hours before the test, the patient drinks sweetened water. Then blood is drawn from a vein. A result of more than 11.1 mmol / L indicates the development of diabetes.
Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that the best diagnostic methods are those that can determine blood sugar levels in a short time and show the most accurate results. In addition, in order for the verification to be truly reliable, it is necessary to go through the study several times. Since the following factors influence the distortion of the analysis results:
- Neglect of the rules for passing the analysis (for example, the patient drank coffee or ate sweets).
- Stressful condition during blood sampling (adrenaline rush).
- Fatigue in patients working night shifts.
- Chronic diseases
If the patient was found to have hyperglycemia (high sugar content), then the doctor prescribes an additional analysis to determine the type of diabetes. Often this is an analysis of the level of C-peptide and GAD antibodies, which should be performed on an empty stomach or after certain physical exertion.
In addition, testing for diabetes 2 times a year is recommended for people over 40 and at risk.
Self-checking sugar levels
A person who is aware of his diagnosis and undergoing therapy knows how sugar levels can be checked at home. To do this, there is a special device - a glucometer, for example, a gamma mini glucometer that measures glucose in the blood in a matter of seconds.
Patients dependent on insulin should check the sugar level before each injection of the hormone, that is, 3-4 times a day. And diabetics suffering from the second type of pathology check at least three times a day. Be sure to check the sugar in the morning after sleep, then 2 hours after breakfast and in the evening.
To check for diabetes at home, you need to buy a glucometer and carefully read the instructions for use. In order to find out the blood sugar level, you need to follow the steps below:
- Wash hands with soap and stretch your finger, which will puncture.
- Treat it with an antiseptic.
- Use a scarifier to puncture the side of the finger.
- The first drop is wiped with a sterile cloth.
- The second is squeezed onto the test strip.
- It is placed in the meter, and after a couple of seconds the result is displayed.
There are many different devices on the medical device market for determining blood sugar levels.
For the majority of the population, the most optimal option is a domestic satellite meter, which is inexpensive, but accurately determines the concentration of glucose.
Why is timely diagnosis important?
The difference between the first and second type of diabetes is manifested in the course of the disease. The first type can develop quite quickly - within a few weeks.
The second type passes stealthily for several years, and then becomes apparent when a person feels the serious consequences of the development of pathology.
Therefore, doctors strongly recommend taking a blood test for sugar once every six months.
Such a simple procedure can protect a person from complications, and there are a lot of them in diabetes, for example:
- Diabetic coma: ketoacidotic (type 1), hypersmolar (type 2). With the onset of such a severe case, urgent hospitalization of the patient is needed.
- Hypoglycemia - a sharp decrease in sugar levels below normal.
- Nephropathy is a pathology associated with impaired renal function.
- Increased blood pressure.
- The development of retinopathy is an inflammation of the retina associated with damage to the vessels of the eyeballs.
- Decreased immunity, as a result, the presence of a cold or flu.
- Stroke and heart attack.
In order to prevent such pathologies, you need to take care of your health. Do not be lazy and check once every six months in a medical facility. Also, to reduce the risk of developing diabetes, you need to adhere to such preventive measures:
- To live an active lifestyle. You need to get up from the couch and do sports more often. It can be anything: from visiting the pool to taking part in team games.
- Follow the principles of diet therapy for diabetes, that is, to prevent the development of the disease, you need to eat less fatty and fried foods, fast food, easily digestible carbohydrates, sweet fruits. On the contrary, it is necessary to enrich your diet with unsweetened fruits, vegetables, foods containing fiber and complex carbohydrates.
- Protect yourself from emotional upheaval. To do this, pay less attention to all sorts of little things. As people say, various diseases appear from nerves. So in traditional medicine, this opinion is true.
- Combine rest and work. You can not burden yourself with overwork and not get enough sleep. Bad and insufficient sleep reduces the body's defenses.
If you feel certain symptoms that may indicate diabetes, you need to be tested for blood sugar. If you find this pathology, do not lose heart! This is not a sentence, thanks to modern methods of treatment, diabetics live a full life, like other people.
The video in this article talks about ways to diagnose diabetes.
What is insulin balance and why is it needed
The insulin is secreted by the pancreas. Its main function is the transport of glucose dissolved in the blood to all tissues and cells of the body. He is also responsible for the balance of protein metabolism. Insulin helps synthesize it from amino acids and then transfers proteins to cells.
When hormone production or its interaction with body structures is disrupted, blood glucose levels rise steadily (this is called hyperglycemia). It turns out that the main carrier of sugar is absent, and he himself cannot get into the cells.
Thus, the unspent supply of glucose remains in the blood, it becomes more dense and loses the ability to transport oxygen and nutrients that are needed to support metabolic processes.
As a result, the walls of the vessels become impenetrable and lose their elasticity. It becomes very easy to injure them. With this “sugaring”, nerves can suffer. All these phenomena in the complex are called diabetes.
Who is at risk?
There is a certain risk group, which includes people who, for whatever reason, are prone to developing such a disease:
- Women who have given birth to a child weighing more than 4.5 kg. Women who had spontaneous miscarriages for short periods or had dead children.
- Adults and children whose close relatives have or have diabetes.
- Children and adults with excess of normal body weight, obesity.
- Patients with various forms of gastric ulcer, liver disease, pancreatitis, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis,
- People who have had a stroke.
How to understand that you may develop diabetes during your life and who should be examined first of all? There are a number of risk factors that increase the likelihood of illness in comparison with other healthy people.
- Heredity. If someone close to you has type 1 or type 2 diabetes, you are more likely to have the disease.
- Excess weight. Overweight people get type 2 diabetes much more often.
- Bad habits. Smoking, abuse of alcohol and junk food not only increase the likelihood of developing diabetes, but also exacerbate the course of the disease and increase the likelihood of complications.
- Pregnancy. In pregnant women, the blood glucose level is carefully checked during the entire period, since there is a special form of diabetes found in pregnant women - gestational diabetes.
- Elderly age. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is much more common in older people and with age this probability only increases, however, it must be remembered that type 1 diabetes, on the contrary, is more common in children and young people.
This disease is much easier to prevent than to treat. Diabetes immediately becomes chronic and becomes incurable. The appearance of the disease affects those categories of patients who are affected by such factors:
- Beta-cell diseases (pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, etc.),
- Dysfunctions of the endocrine system: hyper- or hypofunction of the thyroid gland, pathology of the adrenal gland (cortex), pituitary gland.
- Pancreatic arteriosclerosis,
- Viral infections: measles, flu, rubella, chickenpox, herpes,
- Sedentary lifestyle (lack of exercise),
- Obesity (especially during pregnancy)
- A lot of stress
- Addiction and alcoholism,
- Long-term exposure to certain drugs (pituitary somatostatin, prednisone, furosemide, cyclomethiazide, antibiotics, hypothiazide).
Women are more prone to this disease than men. This is due to the fact that in the body of men there is more testosterone, which positively affects the production of insulin. In addition, according to statistics, girls consume more sugar and carbohydrates, which increase blood glucose.
Diabetes - Types of Disease
Many have heard that with diabetes a high percentage of blood sugar. Yes this is true. But it is not always the case with insulin.
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas begins to produce it in insufficient quantities. As a result, these hormones simply do not cope with their duties - they hardly bring glucose molecules that need it so much to the cells of the body.
It turns out that the cells are starving, and in the blood, on the contrary, there is an excess of this cellular nutrition. Gradually, against the background of hyperglycemia, diabetes develops. With the help of injections of artificial insulin, it is necessary to supply cells with cells.
But there is type 2 diabetes. With this form of the disease, the pancreas seems to produce enough insulin. Only now the cell membranes cease to recognize their breadwinner and do not pass the hormone into the cells.
Interestingly, type 1 diabetes usually occurs in young people who have not reached the age of 30. But the 2 form of the disease is more often found in those who are over 50 and older. This is a disease of the elderly.
There is also a prediabetic state when the blood sugar level is a little high. Diabetes mellitus has not yet developed, but some of its symptoms are clearly present. In these cases, you should take a closer look at yourself.
Women should be especially attentive to themselves, since diabetes is more recognized in medicine as a female disease. Men are less likely to get sick, because male sex hormones produced by their body interfere with insulin problems.
This disease most often has a chronic form and is associated with a malfunction of the endocrine system, and specifically with an imbalance in insulin levels (the base hormone of the pancreas). What is the mechanism of this disease and how to determine diabetes?
|I type (insulin dependent)||Type II (non-insulin independent)||Gestational (glucose intolerance)|
|The immune system begins to destroy pancreatic cells. All glucose draws cellular water into the blood, and dehydration begins.|
The patient in the absence of therapy can fall into a coma, which often leads to death.
|The sensitivity of receptors to insulin decreases, although a normal amount is produced. Over time, hormone production and energy levels decrease (glucose is its main source).|
Protein synthesis is disturbed, fat oxidation is enhanced. Ketone bodies begin to accumulate in the blood. The reason for the decrease in sensitivity may be age-related or pathological (chemical poisoning, obesity, aggressive drugs) a decrease in the number of receptors.
|Most often appears in women after childbirth. The mass of children in this case exceeds 4 kg. This disease can easily go into type II diabetes.|
The mechanism of appearance of each diabetes is different, but there are symptoms that are characteristic of each of them. They also do not depend on the age and gender of the patient. These include:
- Body weight changes,
- The patient drinks a lot of water, while constantly thirsty,
- Frequent urge to urinate, daily urine volume can reach up to 10 liters.
How to do a urine and blood test for diabetes at home
The main source of energy production, so necessary for the body of both an adult and a child to ensure normal functioning, is glucose, which is used by cells as fuel. Its entry into the cells is provided by insulin - a hormone produced during the activity of the pancreas.
In a healthy person, with an increase in blood sugar levels, insulin secretion increases. Glucose is processed more intensively by cells, its concentration decreases.
Normally, the sugar content per liter of blood should not exceed the level of 5.5 mmol on an empty stomach, and after a certain time, after eating - 8.9 mmol.
To check urine or blood for glucose at home, you can buy at any pharmacy specially designed for this purpose:
- blood glucose meter
- urine test strips,
- A1C kit.
The glucometer is a special device that allows you to check your blood for sugar without the help of specialists. It is equipped with a finger piercing lancet and special test strips to determine sugar concentration.
This type of test strip without a prescription is sold at the pharmacy. The analysis should be carried out by reading the instructions in advance. If the test showed that the urine contains sugar, a blood test should be performed with a glucometer.
Testing conducted by A1C kit shows a three-month average blood sugar level. Normally A1C should be 6%. Before buying such a kit, pay attention to the duration of the test indicated on the package. The home kit offers an analysis time of 5 minutes.
Classification of diabetes and causes
Three main types of diabetes can be distinguished.
The main reason for the development of this type of diabetes is the process that occurs when normal immunity is impaired, as a result of which the immune system begins to destroy pancreatic cells responsible for the production of insulin.
Sugar (glucose) draws water from the cells into the bloodstream. The fluid is excreted through the genitourinary system, creating the possibility of dehydration. The weight of the patient decreases sharply and, if you do not start treatment on time, a person can fall into a diabetic coma, which is able to lead to death.
Pathologies of the pancreas, damage to the body by rubella, hepatitis, and mumps viruses can lead to the development of such autoimmune processes. Feeding a baby with cow's milk is also a provoking factor for the development of such a process.
Type I diabetes is most often affected by adolescents and children, it is often called "juvenile diabetes." Its other name is “diabetes of the young”, it is rapidly developing and, in the absence of proper supervision and treatment, leads to death.
With this type of diabetes, insulin is secreted enough, but the sensitivity of its receptors decreases, and glucose does not enter the cells. The secretion of unclaimed hormone decreases over time, and energy production decreases.
The synthesis of protein compounds is disrupted, which leads to the breakdown of protein, enhancing the oxidation of fats. Metabolism products (ketone bodies) accumulate in the blood. The reasons for the decrease in sensitivity may be a decrease in the number of cellular receptors associated with age-related changes or their damage as a result of severe chemical poisoning, taking medications, and obesity.
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes most often affects women.
This type of diabetes can develop in a woman during pregnancy. More often passes independently after the birth of the child. The weight of the child in such cases at birth is more than 4 kg. Women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at risk, because they have a higher risk of type II diabetes than other women.
There are several other types of diabetes. They are directly related to the abnormality of insulin receptors, genetic syndromes, mixed conditions ("tropical diabetes").
Despite the fact that the course of the disease in children is similar to the development of this pathology in adults, it has its own characteristics. Type 2 diabetes is very rare in children. In the case of the first type of diabetes in a child, heredity is the cause when the pancreas has an insufficient number of cells responsible for the secretion of insulin.
Factors affecting the development of diabetes in children:
- infant feeding with mixtures or early termination of breastfeeding,
- stresses that can lead to a decrease in the child’s immunity,
- previously infectious diseases (measles, rubella, mumps) that the child has previously suffered.
As a rule, young children do not complain of any minor manifestations of malaise. Therefore, parents should be careful and pay attention to any noticeable changes in the normal behavior and well-being of their baby.
How to determine diabetes at home?
Top rated doctors
Ermekova Batima Kusainovna
Malyugina Larisa Aleksandrovna
Murashko (Mirina) Ekaterina Yuryevna
Experience 20 years. Candidate of Medical Sciences
Today, many are concerned about the question of how to determine diabetes at home, due to an increase in the number of people exposed to this dangerous disease every year.
First of all, you should pay attention to the state of health and the manifestation of some unpleasant symptoms.
Most do not know about the existence of a problem, because they have no idea about its identification, therefore, a shock occurs at the doctor’s appointment due to unconsciousness and unexpectedness. Therefore, you need to be prepared for an independent correct approach regarding observing yourself and your body.
It is worth knowing that nothing happens naturally from nature. There are visual “signals” that inform a person about the presence of an unhealthy process. DM is detected by a fluctuation in weight, and almost without reason, even spontaneous.
Long non-healing wounds and cuts can also focus, plus everything, susceptibility to colds and various infections.
In some diabetics, vision deteriorates and there is a decrease in physical activity and a lack of craving for normal everyday activities. The intensity of the manifestations may vary, but in the aggregate, these signs should suggest the presence of a serious danger.
A person suffering from a disease experiences a strong feeling of hunger, and he can suddenly become seized with a “brutal” appetite. This is due to low insulin levels. The same goes for thirst: it is very noticeable when much more fluid is required than usual. This signals well the manifestations of the disease even without going to the hospital.
When sugar rises, the nerve cells of the brain begin to “suffer”, this leads to excessive irritability, sometimes aggressiveness, unusual for this person. The mental state affected by the disease can become susceptible to any external factor, which is why diabetics have a feeling of depression and depression.
When identifying the above symptoms, you can immediately say that with a greater degree of probability the danger is present. Without tests, you can determine the disease at home. This will help to make sure of the share of risk to the body and will serve as an impetus for accelerated seeking help.
It is worth knowing that it is impossible to postpone all processes by definition and going to the doctor, as the body can malfunction, especially considering the fact that diabetes can lead to death due to excessive blood sugar.
It will not take much effort for such independent procedures. Today, there are several options for finding out if an organism is sick or not.
If there is a desire and the possibility of testing for diabetes, then there are three options:
- glucometer readings
- test strips
- set-kit called A1C.
By and large, there will be no problems with the application. In the attached instructions, everything is described in an accessible language, with step-by-step steps. As for the cost, it is also quite reasonable. Estimated intervals are equal to marks from 500 to 2,500 rubles. It all depends on the equipment and manufacturer.
For example, strips for urine analysis have a maximum price of five hundred rubles, glucometers are a bit more expensive.
A small amount can be spent on results and your own peace of mind, as well as your morale, and in the future you can be confident in your steps: is it worth going to an appointment with a professional or focusing on another disease that corresponds to the noticed symptoms.
If we talk about the accuracy of the examined devices and devices, then separately we need to stop on the strips that analyze the patient's urine. They are not able to recognize a sugar fraction of less than 190 mg / dl. Therefore, the interpretation leads to incorrect conclusions.
If glucose appears on it, then it will be more optimal to use the device with higher accuracy. When buying an A1C kit, you need to make sure that it shows results for up to 10 minutes, otherwise you should not hope for special effectiveness.
As for the glucometer, then everything is guaranteed by the level of accuracy.
The main rule is to conduct an analysis on an empty stomach, otherwise the readings will be incorrect.
Plus, with an error, you need to be careful: according to medical data, the exact result is about 20% of deviations from the reference type of equipment. Therefore, this figure will not affect the global changes in future therapy.
The manufacturer offers special tests with the device, according to which from time to time it is possible to check the performance. They show the correct values due to the enzyme deposited on the upper layer, which reacts well with blood cells, accurately transmitting the glucose content.
Diabetes mellitus can not be noticed for a long time, since the signs are similar to the symptoms of other diseases or they may be completely absent.
It must be remembered that there is a genetic predisposition. If there is a disease among family members, blood for sugar should be donated regularly. The same recommendations can be addressed to older people, as well as pregnant women who are overweight.
Determining diabetes in the urine or taking a blood test for glucose are just some of the diagnostic methods. There are a number of signs inherent in diabetes that can help determine the disease without tests at home.
They appear depending on the level of decrease in insulin secretion, the duration of the disease and individual characteristics:
- constant thirst
- frequent urination
- increased appetite
- weight loss,
- itching of the skin and mucous membranes, frequent pustular poorly healing wounds,
- prolonged colds, prolonged course of infectious diseases,
- blurred vision
- problems with potency in men,
- weakness, fatigue, irritability,
- lowering body temperature
- weight gain.
Diabetes mellitus provokes the appearance of other serious pathologies. For example, a diabetic foot. The joints and bones of the legs are affected, blood circulation is disturbed due to atherosclerosis, ulcers, wounds that do not feel appear, as the pain threshold is lowered.
If you do not conduct adequate treatment for damaged legs, then gangrene develops. In addition, diabetics are more prone to the development of certain cardiovascular diseases. In women, this risk is significantly higher than in men.
Along with traditional, traditional medicine offers effective recipes and methods for treating diabetes. Medicinal herbs can not only cure diabetes by adjusting sugar levels, but also normalize sweating, return a good complexion, improve mood and performance.
There are several ways to treat it folkly:
- Decoction of laurel leaf. Bay leaf 10 pieces steamed with a glass of boiling water. Insist about 2 to 3 hours. Take half a glass (125 ml) three times during the day half an hour before meals.
- Laurel infusion. Boil 15 large leaves in 300 ml of water for 5 minutes. Pour into a thermos in a place with leaves. After 3 to 4 hours, strain and drink completely in a day, taking in small portions. Treat every 3 days with two-week breaks.
- Infusion of dill. In a thermos with dill seeds (about a tablespoon) pour half a liter of boiling water. Insist well. Take 100 ml three times a day before meals.
- Tincture of dill seeds with wine. 100 g of seeds are boiled in natural red wine over very low heat for at least 20 minutes. After it should be filtered and squeezed. Take tincture before meals no more than 50 g.
From their own menu, patients and those who want to take preventive measures should be categorically excluded:
- meat and dairy products,
- flour and pasta
- sugar, sweets and other sweets,
- yeast bread.
There is only everything fresh and natural, free of dyes, flavors and flavor enhancers.The course of diabetes is beneficially influenced by the menu, including beans, peas, cabbage, greens, zucchini, and eggplant. Buckwheat is very useful.
You should eat often about 6 times a day, but in small quantities and snacks in between are undesirable. The smaller the dose of food, the less insulin the body needs to process it.
Of course, the treatment and prevention of complications of the disease are based on a strict low-carb diet, but if it is supplemented not just by a grandmother’s recipe, but by a proven remedy, then the course of the disease can be significantly mitigated:
- Reduce cholesterol intake.
- Instead of sugar, use a sweetener.
- Inspect legs for damage. Wash them every day with soap and dry them thoroughly.
- Systematically engage in small physical exertion, primarily with excess body weight.
- Monitor your teeth to prevent infection.
- Avoid stress.
- Continuously monitor readings in blood and urine tests.
- Do not use drugs without a doctor’s prescription.
- Treatment with folk remedies.
- Always have a note with you about diabetes mellitus and a supply of insulin or the necessary medicine with you.
- Sanatorium treatment is recommended especially for people whose diabetes is accompanied by diseases of the liver and kidneys. Effective treatment in specialized medical institutions is carried out at the expense of physiotherapy, physiotherapy and mud baths.
- Timely process wounds.
Diabetes mellitus is a common disease that affects men, women, and even small children. The symptomatology of the pathology creeps up “quietly”, therefore diabetes should be determined at an early stage.
A sweet disease can occur almost without signs, or the symptoms are not so pronounced that the patient writes off all the manifestations of the disease to other diseases. Nevertheless, there is a certain list of signs that will even allow you to diagnose the disease at home.
Little known diabetes symptoms
Despite the fact that the causes and development mechanism of each type of diabetes are different, they are united by common symptomatic manifestations (symptoms), which cannot be influenced by the age and gender of a person.
- dry mouth, thirst, drinking more than 2 liters per day,
- frequent urination with an increase in the daily volume of urine output up to 5 liters, in some cases up to 10 liters.
- change in body weight.
Change in body weight is a symptom that allows you to determine the type of diabetes. A sharp weight loss indicates diabetes of the first type, its increase is characteristic of the second type.
In addition to the main symptoms, there are others, the severity of which depends on the duration of the disease. With prolonged exposure to high sugar, the following symptoms may occur:
- decreased sharpness and visual acuity,
- heaviness in the legs, cramps in the calf muscles,
- fatigue, weakness, frequent dizziness,
- itching of the skin and perineum,
- protracted course of infectious diseases,
- it takes longer to heal wounds and abrasions.
The degree of their severity depends on the individual characteristics of the patient, glucose level and duration of diabetes.
If a child or an adult has a feeling of insatiable thirst, dry mouth, he begins to absorb a significant amount of liquid and often urinate even at night, it is worth considering. After all, it is precisely these symptoms that help determine diabetes in the initial stages.
In such cases, you should consult a doctor who, after listening to the complaints, will prescribe an appropriate examination, which includes a number of tests, including blood for sugar, a general urine test (in a healthy person, normal sugar should not contain urine) and appropriate treatment.
Do not forget that often the disease begins and can occur for a long period without special symptoms, but is manifested by complications that already occur. But such an option can be ruled out.
To do this, at least once a year, an adult should undergo a corresponding examination by the doctor himself (donate blood and urine to determine the presence of sugar in them) and not ignore the preventive examinations prescribed by the pediatrician for the child.
There are frequent symptoms of diabetes, called “red flags,” allowing doctors to suspect the disease and refer the patient for an initial examination to check for high blood sugar.
- Rapid urination. The kidneys respond to elevated glucose levels and tend to excrete it during diuresis, while a large amount of water is excreted together with glucose molecules.
- Thirst. Increased human fluid requirements are a major contributor to diabetes. A high glucose level leads to the constant elimination of excess sugar in the urine, and the body is dehydrated. The main protective mechanism for dehydration is thirst - signals are sent to the brain that it is necessary to replenish water supplies. A person begins to drink much more often than before, sometimes up to 8-10 liters per day.
- Weight loss. Despite the fact that many people with type 2 diabetes are overweight, progressive weight loss begins in the onset of the disease with a familiar lifestyle and without changing the diet.
Complaints of thirst, increased urination and weight loss are frequent companions of diabetes and immediately prompt the doctor to think about a serious illness. However, there are also little-known signs of diabetes, which, however, can help to suspect this diagnosis and allow timely treatment to begin.
- Fatigue and decreased performance, a periodic feeling of "loss of strength" can occur in any healthy person, however, prolonged fatigue, apathy and physical fatigue, not caused by physical overload or stress, and also not disappearing after rest, can be a sign of endocrine disease, including diabetes.
Why does blood glucose rise
They give up to determine the concentration of sugar in blood plasma. It is better to make a complex consisting of such studies:
- Urine on ketone bodies and sugar,
- Blood sugar from your finger
- Blood for insulin, hemoglobin and C-peptide,
- Glucose sensitivity test.
Blood for glucose to complete the picture you need to donate twice: on an empty stomach (normal up to 6.1 mmol / l) and a couple of hours after eating (normal 8.3 mmol / l).
Often the blood glucose level remains normal, while the absorption of sugar changes - this is typical for the initial stage of the disease.
Before passing the tests, you must adhere to the following rules:
- Exclude all medicines in 6 hours,
- Do not eat at least 10 hours before the test,
- Do not consume vitamin C,
- Do not preload yourself emotionally and physically.
If there is no disease, then the glucose indicator will be from 3.3 to 3.5 mmol / L.
How to determine diabetes at home? What symptoms in men and women indicate the development of the disease? Is it possible to determine the pathology without blood tests?
When a person is completely healthy, then after he eats, the concentration of glucose in the body rises. However, after a few hours, the sugar level in the body normalizes to the required limits.
How to identify diabetes? A sweet disease can occur without any symptoms, and can be diagnosed in a patient by accident. For example, a patient came for a routine examination to an ophthalmologist, and he not only can identify the ailment, but also establish what type of diabetes.
You can find out if you have diabetes or not by a specific clinical picture. And symptoms may exist together or separately:
- Constant desire to drink water, frequent trips to the toilet (and even at night up to 10 times).
- Dryness and peeling of the skin.
- Dryness in the mouth.
- Increased appetite, while no matter how much the patient eats, you still want to eat.
- Persistent muscle weakness.
- Cramps of the lower extremities.
- Wound surfaces do not heal for a long period of time.
- Periodic bouts of nausea and vomiting.
In addition, the patient may experience rapid weight loss. As a rule, this happens if the patient has type 1 diabetes. Conversely, rapid weight gain when a patient has type 2 diabetes.
How to identify diabetes? If you have the above symptoms - a few or more, then you need to think about your health, consult a doctor and undergo an examination.
These signs will not help determine the type of diabetes, as they are similar in both types of ailment. Therefore, two types of disease must be considered separately.
The question of whether a person has diabetes or not is a key one. Since timely diagnosis of pathology will help prevent possible complications of the disease.
How to determine the type of diabetes? The clinical picture of the pathology of the first type includes most of the symptoms that characterize the disease. The difference lies in the severity of the manifestation of the disease.
A distinctive characteristic of type 1 diabetes is that there are sharp changes in the sugar content in the body (first very high, then almost instantly too low, and vice versa).
Against the background of the first type of ailment, a sharp decrease in the patient's body weight occurs. As a rule, the patient can rapidly lose 15 kilograms in a few months. In addition, there is a sleep disturbance, in particular drowsiness.
- Peculiar odor from the oral cavity.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Pain in the abdomen.
In the vast majority of cases, the first type is diagnosed in young patients, and extremely rarely in people over 40 years of age. Typically, people over 40 years old are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and prescribed pills to lower their blood sugar.
However, the doctor may make a mistake, and at this time the disease progresses, the prescribed therapy does not help, because it is not adequate for this type of pathology, as a result, ketoacidosis develops.
The second type of ailment
The second type of disease is most often diagnosed in patients older than 40 years. As a rule, severe symptoms are not observed. Sometimes a general blood test helps establish the ailment.
The risk group includes people who are obese, hypertension and other types of metabolic syndromes.
Medical practice shows that with this type of ailment, a constant feeling of thirst and dry mouth are rare. Most often, patients complain of itchy sensations in the lower extremities.
Usually, it is rarely possible to diagnose the disease on time. As a rule, when it is possible to identify a sweet disease, the patient already has complications of type 2 diabetes.
It should be noted that the complexity of diagnosing type 2 diabetes is the main cause of complications that will necessarily manifest themselves in the future.
Therefore, you need to carefully monitor your health, and when observing specific symptoms, consult a doctor immediately. Especially if there are predisposition factors.
How is diabetes diagnosed? And what indications should be in the analyzes in order to say with full confidence that the patient has diabetes mellitus?
To diagnose the disease, not one study is conducted, but several. The patient needs to donate blood for glucose, a urine test for the presence of acetone, pass a sugar tolerance test, determine C-peptitis and other determining indicators.
To detect diabetes, donating blood exclusively to an empty stomach is not enough. Additionally, a sugar test is recommended a few hours after a meal.
Information about other analyzes:
- In a healthy person, sugar and acetone are not observed in urine. Sugar can appear in the urine only when glucose in the body exceeds 8 units.
- Glycated hemoglobin allows you to recognize blood sugar in the body over the past three months.
- A glucose tolerance test will help you find out what is being discussed: specifically diabetes or prediabetes. For fasting blood, the sugar limit in the body is 5.5 units. For the second blood sampling, up to 7.8 units. If the indicators are 7.8-11, they indicate a lack of sugar tolerance. More than 11 units are diagnosed with pathology.
Only after a comprehensive examination, the doctor can make the right conclusion. Unfortunately, the second type of diabetes is often diagnosed when time is lost.
As for the first type, it is easier to cope with it, because it has more pronounced symptoms. And even the patient alone may suspect that his body is malfunctioning.
And how was diabetes diagnosed to you? Tell your story to complete the review with information!
What is the disease fraught with
There are certain vivid symptoms that suggest how to recognize diabetes. Here is their complete list:
- Too frequent use of the toilet (to pee).
- A sharp decrease or weight gain.
- Constant drying of the mucosa in the mouth.
- Exhausting craving for food.
- Unreasonable change of mood.
- Frequent colds and viral diseases.
- Prolonged unhealed wounds, scratches.
- The body is almost constantly itchy.
- Often there are abscesses, seizures in the corners of the mouth.
Among all the symptoms, a significant amount of urine, which leaves the body during the day, is especially indicative. In addition, sudden jumps in weight should also alert.
Usually, confirmation that diabetes is developing is a constant feeling of hunger. This is due to the fact that the cells are undernourished. The body begins to require food.
Against the background of starvation of the body, vision begins to drop sharply. Indifference to one's health can lead to complete blindness. Such symptoms are a serious reason for going to the clinic. It is necessary to check, go to the endocrinologist.
This disease in professional circles is often called the “accelerated version of aging”, because diabetes disrupts absolutely all metabolic processes in the body. It can cause such dangerous complications:
- Violation of the function of the gonads. Impotence may develop in men, and menstrual irregularities in women. In advanced cases, infertility appears, earlier aging and other diseases of the reproductive system.
- Stroke, circulatory disorders in the brain, encephalopathy (vascular damage).
- Pathology of vision. These include: conjunctivitis, diabetic cataract, barley, damage to the cornea, detachment of the retina and blindness, damage to the iris.
- Inflammation of the oral cavity. Healthy teeth fall out, periodontal disease and stomatitis develop.
- Diabetic foot syndrome. Purulent necrotic processes, osteoarticular lesions begin and ulcers form (bones, soft tissues, nerves, blood vessels, skin, joints are affected). This is the main cause of leg amputation in patients.
- Pathologies of the cardiovascular system (atherosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery disease).
- Disorders of the digestive tract - fecal incontinence, constipation and so on.
- Renal failure resulting in an artificial kidney.
- Damage to the nervous system.
The disease is very serious, so patients definitely need intensive treatment in the form of insulin therapy, a complete change in lifestyle and diet.
All these activities will be lifelong, because it is completely impossible to cure this disease.
What to do if you suspect diabetes
With different types of diabetes, therapeutic methods vary:
- 1 type. Insulin therapy is carried out - hormone injections of 0.5-1 units per kilogram of weight. Carbohydrates and some vegetables / fruits are minimized. Mandatory physical activity. With proper support of the body, the patient does not face complications.
- 2 type. Insulin is used only in very advanced cases, and so there is no need for it. The main treatment is diet therapy and taking hypoglycemic drugs. They help glucose penetrate the cells. Often used infusions on herbs.
It plays one of the decisive roles in the treatment of the disease. For an individual diet, it is better to consult a nutritionist. If we talk about the general principles of nutrition in this disease, then we can distinguish the following:
- Remove glucose and all products that contain it from the diet. If it’s really hard without sugar, you can use substitutes for it. They are also not beneficial for the body, but do not cause such harm.
- So that the stomach can better digest fatty foods, you can (in a reasonable amount) use spices.
- Replace the coffee with drinks from ceccoria.
- More garlic, cabbage, onions, spinach, celery, tomatoes, fish (except fatty varieties), pumpkin and other fresh vegetables.
- To minimize or not eat such products.
Proper nutrition should in no case be neglected. The main amount of sugar we get from food.
Sport burns excess sugar perfectly. There are universal exercises that are designed for diabetics. You need to do them daily.
- Lifting on socks, hands rest against the back of the chair - up to 20 repetitions,
- Squat holding the support - 10-15 times,
- You need to lie on your back opposite the wall, after which you need to raise your legs and press your feet against the wall for 3-5 minutes,
- Daily walk on the street with alternating pace of walking.
It is worth remembering that this is not a lesson in the hall, which often requires completion through "I can not."
The body should not be overloaded and if it is difficult for the patient to perform the indicated number of repetitions - let him do less. Increase the load gradually.
They often help relieve symptoms, but are not able to provide a full treatment. They should be used in combination with basic therapy and only with the permission of the doctor. For the preparation of infusions use onions, vodka, oak bark, acorns, plantain, burdock, linden, walnuts.
First of all, do not panic and be afraid to go to the doctor. In order to determine this disease does not require complex and expensive examinations, it is enough to take a blood test and determine the level of glucose.
Currently, all patients with diabetes have the opportunity even at home to conduct a test to determine the level of glycemia and do it daily. Normal indicators of fasting blood glucose are 3.3–5.5 mmol / L, and after eating no more than 7.8 mmol / L.
However, a once-high fasting glucose level is not a reason for diagnosing diabetes mellitus, such an increase should be detected at least twice, or such a reason may be an increase in glucose levels above 11 mmol / l, regardless of food intake.
Patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus are referred for a more in-depth examination to identify the type of disease, its possible complications, as well as prescribe the appropriate treatment.
How not to get diabetes. Tips
Unfortunately, there are no recommendations to avoid the disease with a 100% guarantee. There are hereditary factors that cannot be influenced in any way. Nevertheless, there are a number of recommendations to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus to a large extent:
- Live actively. Exercise regularly, choose what you can do with physical activity, whether it's running, swimming or walking.
- Watch out for food. Choose healthy foods, give preference to carbohydrates with a high glycemic index (cereals, vegetables) instead of harmful "fast" carbohydrates (flour, sweets).
- Control the weight. Check your body mass index and keep it within normal limits.
- Give up bad habits. Try to minimize the use of any alcohol and quit smoking as soon as possible.
- Monitor your blood glucose. If your age is older than 40 years or you have at least one of the risk factors, you can’t do without tests: regularly donate blood for sugar in the laboratory or use a device such as a glucometer to determine diabetes in time.
- Watch your blood pressure and take medications to lower it, if necessary.
Remember - diabetes is not a sentence, people suffering from this disease can live a full life, however, an early and timely visit to a doctor will significantly increase your chances of maintaining your health and maintaining a high quality of life.
How to protect yourself?
The most important thing is the constant monitoring of your health and the right way of life. To avoid the development of the disease, follow these rules:
- Replace animal fats with vegetable fats,
- Don’t be nervous a lot,
- Play sports
- Twice a year, check the concentration of sugar in urine and blood,
- Limit or quit alcohol and tobacco
- Eat fractionally
- Reduce the amount of sugary and other simple carbohydrates in your diet.
Remember that your health is a reflection of the rhythm of life. It suffers when you do not follow it and serves you with due care. Therefore, treat your body with respect and illness will bypass you!