Cardio is a word that is familiar to all athletes involved in any sport: from athletics to power extreme. The second meaning of the word is aerobic activity, and it is the subject of many myths, jokes, and even training systems. From here came the term "cardio training." Let's see why it is interesting to many athletes.
From the point of view of biochemistry, cardio is a common name for all types of workloads due to an energy-exchange process called aerobic glycolysis. During cardio training, oxygen enters our body, oxidizes glucose, from which energy is released. It is this energy that ensures the maintenance of a person’s physical activity for a long time.
This is the training of cardio from strength training, in which the release of energy occurs by another method, oxygen-free, or otherwise - anaerobic.
Types of Cardio Workouts
To avoid possible confusion, consider the most popular types of cardio and talk about how they are mixed with power sports.
- Running (can be replaced by brisk walking) is a great way to warm up in the morning, energize, ventilate the lungs and the whole body, and at the same time spend a couple of hundred calories. The condition for such a training is not to run too fast so as not to exhaust completely. On the other hand, it should not be an easy walk, from which you do not even sweat. You need to tune in to your own optimal rhythm and run from three to six times a week, allotting an hour or a half of time to this. This will not only strengthen your body, but also help to become drier, more prominent.
- Swimming is the best form of cardio, since in this case it is difficult to exceed the maximum voltage limit. You should not just stay on the water, but swim for your pleasure, completing the training with a 200-500-meter swim without stopping. This kind of cardio workout can produce results that are literally fabulous. This is because, unlike running, swimming limits breathing. The body perceives this as a signal and begins to strive to increase lung capacity, which means that the supply of the entire body with oxygen will improve. Additional benefits - strengthening the immune system due to contact with water. Muscles in the water relax and recover faster. Like marathon runners, swimmers have a much lower release of lactic acid into their muscles, so for people who do strength training with iron, there is an opportunity to train even more productively.
- Treadmills and fitness equipment are simulated running. Such training takes place indoors, which is pretty bad. If there are no options or if the simulator is installed at home, it is possible to train in this way, but it must be borne in mind that the absence of sunlight and clean oxygen-rich air, with increased loads on the heart and blood vessels, require such doses to be strictly dosed.
- Circular training, otherwise called "functional training" These types of training arose a long time ago, but became popular no more than a year ago. Their essence is to perform strength training with a weight significantly less than that used by bodybuilders - five times or even ten times less than normal working weight, but exercises are performed in a circle three to five times, without respite. It looks pretty attractive, but this is not only a huge load, but also a high danger to blood vessels and the heart. However, it can be clarified that this danger occurs only for a person who does not have the appropriate training, with an unfamiliar technique. The lungs of such a person have not yet acquired the skill to supply oxygen to the body in a critical mode for 15-20 minutes in a row.
For clarity and specific numbers, see the infographic:
Who needs cardio training and why?
Let's see who is recommended for cardio training and in which cases it is better to use it.
- It can be advised to all middle-aged people, as they help maintain the cardiovascular system and prolong life.
- In exercises aimed at building muscle mass, cardio workouts are undesirable because they cause the opposite effect of hypertrophy on muscle growth. But, since it is impossible to build muscle and burn fat at the same time, it is desirable to include cardio in the training plan together with strength training during the fat burning phase, as this will make fat burning more effective.
- If you set a goal to lose weight, it will be very good to add cardio to strength exercises, although cardio in itself is not the best way to lose weight.
- Cardio training is good if you are engaged in cyclic sports, and you need to develop endurance.
- Cardio is good to use for recovery. With light loads, recovery occurs more quickly.
- Many advise using cardio workouts to warm up - to warm up the body for 5-7 minutes before starting a workout. Although this is not entirely cardio, it is more likely a regular workout.
Cardio training is not the best way to lose weight.
Among women involved in fitness, this is a fairly popular misconception: hoping to lose weight and afraid to “swing,” they storm ellipses in all the fitness rooms of the world. But you don’t have to worry - to “swing” without hormones and steroids is simply impossible. But if cardio training is used exclusively for weight loss, then this is really a fallacy, and it’s very common.
Indeed, in 45 minutes of cardio workout, you can burn more calories than during the same duration of strength training, but for weight loss the overall effect will be worse. Strength training works differently - it burns fat not during training, but after it in the process of rest, which substantially raises the overall metabolic rate. Thanks to strength training, even a small amount of muscle, for example, 5 kg, will appear in your path, but they will already require the addition of 250-400 additional kilocalories per day to the normal diet. As a result, it becomes easier to maintain some calorie deficit and burn fats on an ongoing basis.
The maximum effect for burning fat is observed when combining full strength training with cardio training. Fitness experts advise for weight loss to conduct 2-3 weight training per week and add 2-3 cardio workouts to them lasting 45-60 minutes, and it is better to choose different days for training.
When is better to run
1. Running on an empty stomach
Modern studies have found that training for 30-60 minutes in the morning, immediately after waking up, allows you to burn fat three times more than similar exercises at other times of the day. The fact is that the main source of energy for the body throughout the day is carbohydrates from food. During night sleep, these reserves are depleted by the body. Therefore, when a person wakes up, carbohydrates no longer play their energetic role and fat begins to be consumed to receive energy.
Interestingly, as a result of morning workouts, the metabolism rises for the whole day, so that after training on an empty stomach, the body will burn more calories throughout the day.
Attention! It is definitely worth considering for those who have good muscle mass that exercise on an empty stomach is contraindicated for them, because with a lack of fat, the body will begin to burn muscle. So this way to lose weight is only suitable for those people who have something to lose, that is, there is excess fat.
In Kansas, studies were conducted that showed that during a morning exercise, one kilogram of fat was oxidized faster than if physical activity was shown towards the end of the day. The cyclist pedaling in the morning before breakfast burned 60% more fat than he trained at lunch.
For muscular people who want to improve their muscles, running in the morning on an empty stomach is contraindicated. In general, running in the morning is good, but from the point of view of muscle loss instead of fat, doing cardio on an empty stomach is bad. Therefore, you can create for yourself such a schedule for a morning run:
- get up early, no later than 6-7 o’clock in the morning,
- have a snack without meat, for example, eat 4-5 boiled eggs with a glass of juice and bread,
- after a meal, take a 30-45 minute pause,
- take a run.
So, for those who want to get rid of excess fat mass, it is advisable to run in the morning on an empty stomach, and if running is considered as a way to develop muscles, it is better to eat before cardio.
2. Cardio before strength training
For men seeking to gain muscle mass, aerobic activity in any form for one to two hours before working with iron is absolutely contraindicated. Cardio performed before strength work will lead to depletion of glycogen reserves, as a result of which there may simply not be enough strength for the last two or three repetitions, the most effective ones that stimulate growth most of all. Another argument in favor of the fact that cardio is not necessary before training is that running leads to a decrease in protein synthesis and an increase in its breakdown. During strength training, everything happens the other way around: protein synthesis remains at the same level or increases slightly, but protein breakdown increases.
Thus, it turns out that after cardio training, protein synthesis, which is understood as the ability of the human body to form new muscle structures, is reduced and if after that you go to strength training, then the ability to build muscle mass will significantly decrease. Consequently, cardio, especially with a long duration, leaves its mark on muscle progress. For women who do not want to have muscle in large numbers, training with low intensity and low weight, it is quite possible to afford a 20-25-minute run.
Thus, prior to training, cardio training may well be performed, but after it it is necessary to withstand a certain time - 2.5 - 3 hours in order to restore the glycogen depot. The proper diet and the use of appropriate sports supplements, such as carbohydrate-protein shakes or gainers, will speed up this process.
3. Advantages and disadvantages of cardio after strength training
Such cardio workouts are more favorable than those conducted before strength training. The reason is that in the process of strength training, glycogen stores are not so depleted as during aerobic activity. So after completing your workout, your muscles will still have enough stored glycogen, and you can conduct your race at a high level. You can get even more efficiency from cardio if you wait, eat, and then go for a run for two to three hours after class. Thus, you will quickly replenish glycogen stores, the breakdown of proteins will be suspended and the body will be ready to send all the pitchforks for a run, because it will no longer have to worry about restoring “post-workout holes”.
Best Cardio Results
Everyone wants not just to run, but to achieve certain results with this - to improve their physique, heart function, etc. Therefore, to achieve these goals, you need to know exactly the time of the intended run and accordingly plan your races. You can follow these tips:
- if in one of the strength training you plan to train your legs, then cardio should be carried away from this day, for example, training your legs on Monday, run on Thursday or Friday,
- do cardio workouts on days when you don’t have strength training,
- if you can’t set aside separate days for jogging, practice jogging after your workout.
If the body is 100% energized, you will get much more benefits, that is, muscle gain, improved appearance.
At what pace to run during cardio workouts
You need to calculate the running intensity according to the formula, which is tied to the indicator of the maximum heart rate (heart ratemax) This frequency is defined as follows:
Heart ratemax = 220 - age.
So, for a 17-year-old person, the maximum heart rate is 220 - 17 = 203. During cardio training, the pulse should be from 65% to 85% of the calculated maximum.
Often they also talk about the pulse zone of fat burning (most likely because it is often noted in fitness rooms on cardiovascular equipment). This zone is also determined individually by testing on a gas analyzer. This rate is slightly lower - it is 60-70% of the maximum heart rate. For an average 30-year-old person, the norm is 115-135 beats per minute. However, one must not forget that cardio training is not particularly effective for burning fat.
Is it worth eating after cardio workouts
Many are sure that food after the race is like death, because it crosses out all the work done with such reluctance. If you think so, you need to reconsider your point of view, since it is erroneous. If, after running, you do not have a bite to eat, but starve, the body will begin to develop a tendency to accumulate fat. Therefore, you must eat properly. This does not mean that after running you have to dig into the confectionery department. Proper nutrition includes the following products: protein shake, fish, chicken, brown rice, buckwheat.
How much you need to run to burn 1000 kilocalories
The information below is from an American magazine dedicated to running and losing weight. It traced the relationship between fast food consumption and running, that is, how much you need to run to compensate for various foods. The results were as follows: if a person runs at a speed of 7-9 km / h, that is, at a moderate pace with a pulse of 65-75% of the maximum, then with an average build (70 kg), he burns about 550-600 kcal / hour. So running for a distance of 1.6 kilometers allows you to spend 100-120 kcal.
What form of aerobic activity to choose
Everyone understands that you can run in different ways. Some people think that running to reduce weight should be at a slow pace, while someone defends the benefits of interval cardio. We describe four types of aerobic activity that allow you to achieve both fat burning and muscle mass.
1. Low Efficiency Cardio (CED). This is a well-known jogging. It not only affects the composition of the body, but also helps to reduce muscle pain, helps to restore muscles damaged by microtrauma, as the blood is richly delivered to the muscles, enriched with nutrients. KNI is not only jogging, but also cycling, treadmill exercises at a low speed. With SOI, the energy of free fatty acids is used mainly, carbohydrates are in second place as an energy source.
During KNI training, it is advisable to take additional proteins and amino acids that are present in sports nutrition to maintain and maintain muscle mass. When training low intensity, it is necessary to maintain a pulse within 60-65% of the maximum. When cardio training, which lasts 30-45 minutes, it is necessary to remain slightly moistened throughout.
2. Medium Intensity Cardio (CSI) is an intermediate option between sprinting and jogging. The main goal is to carry out work at an active pace, while the level of effort should be maintained for a long time. With this run, you need to focus on breathing and constantly maintain the target heart rate zone within 65-70%. The CSI should be performed for at least 30 minutes, while no rest is permissible and the pace should not go astray for a second.
In this type of cardio, not only fats, but also carbohydrates are a source of energy. In order to maintain and maintain normal muscle mass, it is necessary to additionally take amino acids and proteins. 5-7 minutes after the start, such a run leads to increased sweating, so you need to be careful about dehydration and drink water on the go.
3. Interval Cardio (IR) requires intensity, the same as the SOI, but with less concentration and attention. You can work without fear of a possible breakdown. The goal of such an activity is quick training, leading to an increase in metabolism for a long time after its completion. Many studies have shown that IR provides the effect of burning fat even better than with a double duration of SOI - this is due to a higher level of metabolism.
Sprint is an intense cardio for certain intervals with active recovery periods in the form of walking in place between runs. The second name is IR - VIIK (High Intensity Interval Cardio). Due to the anaerobic nature of this intensity, it is mainly provided with carbohydrates, therefore, in order to achieve the best results, it is necessary to consume carbohydrates both before and after running training. The use of amino acids and proteins is required for muscle recovery, and the cool water used in respite gives a rush of fresh strength and a boost of energy. To perform training according to this scheme, you can use the following schedule:
- train 2-3 times a week,
- duration of an intense race - 15 seconds,
- in 15 seconds you need to run 50-60 meters,
- the number of sprints - 20, of which 12 - with full intensity, 4 warm-up and 4 for cooling,
- total training time is 15-20 minutes.
- cardiovascular system is trained,
- Strength and explosive abilities improve.
The athlete selects 2-3 exercises and ties them into one bundle. Weight is approximately 650% of the one-shot maximum. If a barbell weighing 50 kg rises to the biceps for one repetition, then for a circular workout, you can use a weight of 25 kg. Repeat 12-15 times, with three sets with rest between sets for 15-20 seconds. So, one circle is 2-3 exercises that are performed in a row one after another with respite between the circles for 15-20 seconds. In this type of anaerobic activity, carbohydrates are consumed as fuel, so during the session they must be consumed in order to nourish the body. It is also necessary to control the intake of protein in the body and constantly remain hydrated, that is, sufficiently hydrated.
Each type of cardio has its own characteristics, disadvantages and advantages, so it doesn’t really matter which type provides maximum efficiency: you can choose the one that you like best and from which you will enjoy. You can try everything that is described above, and pick your own. Any method forms an anabolic environment in the body and has a positive effect on body composition. The main thing is to use the chosen method systematically.
How to lose weight with cardio
Not everyone likes running, so other types of aerobic activity can be used instead. We also remind you that cardio is not the most effective way to lose weight quickly. We offer some tips that can be useful when doing cardio workouts:
Tip number 1. Replace walking with jogging. Your weight is indifferent to everyone around you, and only you yourself are interested in getting rid of it. Until you start running, you cannot lose weight. For starters, you can alternate between running and walking - run for two minutes and walk for two minutes, and so on for 30-40 minutes. Gradually, you can reduce the time of respite, and soon you will see the changes in yourself.
Tip number 2. Drink water during cardio. At the same time, you should not confuse the concepts of "wet your throat" and "drink as you should." If you drink more than half a liter of water in an hour of cardio training, you will simply secure an invitation to the toilet. We feel thirsty even if our mouths are simply dry. You can wet it and run on.
Tip number 3. What to do if stabs in the side. This happens to everyone and is most often asked what to do with it. You don’t have to do anything, you can run a little slower further, breathe more often and maintain the rhythm of breathing and everything will pass in a couple of minutes.
Cardio training is an important part of the path to reducing body fat, but not the only one. To succeed, you need to combine several components, the most important of which is proper nutrition. This must not be forgotten.
Which cardio burns more calories?
Since the body needs extra energy during cardio workouts, it is traditionally believed that cardio is the best way to quickly burn fat. Moreover, most people are sure that the more sweat is released during such cardio training, the better the fat burns. However, this opinion is nothing more than another myth of fitness.
First of all, you need to understand that the number of calories burned during a physical training session or some kind of cardio depends not so much on the choice of specific exercises or even on the type of activity, but on the duration of this training session and heart rate. For example, swimming and jumping rope require the same amount of calories.
What is cardio?
Cardio training (from Greek. "cardio”, Heart) is the performance of any physical exercises that increase the heart rate. Types of cardio training are running, brisk walking, cycling, rowing or swimming, as well as aerobics or even active yoga. In addition, strength exercises can also be performed in cardio mode.
In addition, it is necessary to correctly evaluate the calories burned during cardio workouts and remember that one can of Coca-Cola is equivalent to 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity. In other words, it’s much easier to control the excess calories in food than in the future to try to burn these same calories in the gym.
Calorie Costs in Training
|Calories burned in 30 min, kcal|
|Weight 55 kg||Weight 70 kg||Weight 85 kg|
|Active strength training||180||223||266|
|Speed exercise bike||315||391||466|
|Running at 10 km / h||375||465||555|
The Effect of Cardio on Weight Loss
The mechanism by which regular cardio leads to weight loss does not lie in the instant burning of calories from breakfast previously eaten (or fat from the reserves on the stomach and sides), but in the gradual development of the body's ability to form reserves of rapidly available energy in the muscles to perform physical exercises.
As a result, this changes the metabolism, and excess calories of carbohydrates begin to be stored in the form of glycogen in the muscles, and not in the form of fat on the stomach. At the same time, losing weight is part of the recovery period after training, achieved only in case of a general lack of calories in food. That is why diet is always more important than training.
Best Fat Burning Cardio
To force the body to use fat as fuel, it is necessary first to empty the reserves of carbohydrates stored in the muscles in the form of glycogen. That is why cardio for weight loss should be either long (at least 30-40 minutes), or should be performed immediately after strength training, when the blood sugar level is minimal.
The third option for effective cardio for burning fat is to perform HIIT high-intensity interval training, but this type of training is more suitable for professional athletes than for ordinary people who want to lose a few pounds. In their case, prolonged cardio training of moderate intensity will be best.
Why is running for weight loss dangerous?
In the understanding of the majority, running is the best way to quickly burn fat. Unfortunately, newcomers often do not have the slightest understanding of how to run correctly. However, as we learn to swim, we must also learn and run - running with the wrong equipment and in the wrong shoes (especially with flat feet) can easily cause serious knee injury.
At the same time, running is categorically not recommended for people with excess body weight, since shock loads extremely negatively affect their knee and hip joints, provoking the development of chronic pain. For obese people, walking on an ellipsoid, exercise bike, rowing machine or swimming is preferred.
The combination of cardio and weight training
In fact, cardio before strength training is an important part of the warm-up, because it is necessary both to prepare the body for stress in general, and to increase blood flow activity and increase temperature in particular. A proper workout should always include 5-10 minutes of light cardio workouts with a pulse of 120-140 beats per minute.
However, cardio performed after strength training will negatively affect the effectiveness of the main training - despite the fact that fat burning processes are activated, at the same time, the level of the stress hormone cortisol, which destroys muscles, will increase. In addition, it is the high level of cortisol that is responsible for the accumulation of excess fat on the stomach.
Cardio training program
The main thing in the cardio training program is not its compilation at all, but careful recording of the results. You should record how many times a week you performed cardio (if you combine several activities, indicate which type of cardio), how long each training session lasted, what was your average heart rate and how you ended up feeling.
The best cardio training program for losing weight and burning fat is 2-4 workouts on a treadmill, ellipsoid or on an exercise bike per week. The duration of each is from 30 to 50 minutes, the average heart rate is not higher than 120-130 beats. In the presence of a daily calorie deficit of 300-400 kcal, this cardio mode will make it easy to lose weight by 2-3 kg per month.
An example of a cardio training program:
- Monday: 20 minutes sailing at speed
- Tuesday: 40 minutes of leisurely running
- Thursday: 40 minutes sailing technique
- Friday: 20 minutes of interval running
- Sunday: 60 minutes on an ellipsoid with a pulse of 150-170 beats per minute
Cardio training, stimulating the cardiovascular system, is necessary both as a warm-up before power loads, and to normalize the mechanisms of using sugar as a source of nutrition for the body - this is important for activating fat burning processes. The heart rate should not exceed 150 beats per minute.
- Calories burned in 30 minutes for people of three different weights, source
Relaxed Wellness Run
Somehow go to the stadium and look with what kind of facial expression people are running there. You will see that almost all runners are very tense. They have clenched teeth, narrowed eyes, nostrils swell. They overcome their pain, weakness, fatigue and are eager for victory from the last forces. Their faces usually express misery. It seems that they are tortured while jogging.
Our life with you is not a gift of fate. There are plenty of different troubles and problems. To take on another hard labor in the form of physical education classes - no person in their right mind would agree, even under the threat of death from complications of diabetes. But I want to offer you an alternative. What if you learn to run like this?
The idea is that adults can re-learn how to run like they did in childhood — fun, joyful, without the slightest exertion, getting only pleasure. The technique of how to do this is described in the book “Chi-run. A revolutionary way to run with pleasure, without injuries and torment. " You can easily get it and read it in a few days.
The Diabet-Med.Com website works to spread two “good news” among people with diabetes:
- A low-carbohydrate diet makes it possible to maintain perfectly normal sugar in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well as stop the jump in blood sugar and reduce the dosage of insulin.
- With type 2 diabetes, jogging with pleasure is a miracle cure No. 2 after a low-carbohydrate diet.
After a while, you will be pulled for jogging, as in childhood you were drawn to walking outside, because the body will want to get another portion of endorphins again and again. While you enjoy, physical education has a healing effect, improving diabetes control, helping to lose weight and preventing cardiovascular disease. I call Chi-running a miracle cure because it really helps to control diabetes, without any side effects, it gives great pleasure, and all this is free. In my opinion, this is a real miracle.
Why do I need a heart rate monitor for jogging
It is most effective to run according to the methodology of the book “Chi-Run” and at the same time control your heart rate using a heart rate monitor. You need to spend $ 50-80 on this device, but you will quickly see how much it brings. With a heart rate monitor, you can run longer and more efficiently, burn excess fat without overworking. We cannot sense our blood sugar and therefore use a glucometer. In the same way, it is incorrect to control the pulse by sensations, and you need to monitor it with a heart rate monitor. You only need a heart rate monitor with a chest sensor, which is attached with a belt, as in the picture below.
The theoretical maximum allowable pulse is calculated by the formula “220 - age in years”. For example, for a 65-year-old person, the theoretical maximum is 220 - 65 = 155 beats per minute. During physical education classes we don’t need to get close to him! The body trains well when the pulse is 60-85% of the theoretical maximum.
If during training the pulse jumps above the norm, then after a while the sensations let us know about it. But, unfortunately, they arise too late. When you feel that the heart is pounding, it means that it has already managed for some time to work for wear. He has to stop urgently to give him a break, and the run breaks. Not to mention the fact that if you overload the heart, then you can get a heart attack.
With a heart rate monitor, you can avoid this development. You get the opportunity at any time to find out your heart rate, just like time on a regular watch. Some models of heart rate monitors emit a sound signal if the heart rate exceeds the specified limit. We heard such a signal - which means that you urgently need to slow down, relax. Our main goal is to have fun while jogging and not overdo it while steadily maintaining a pulse in the aerobic training mode of 60-85% of the theoretical maximum.
You can run for a short while and with a pulse of 90-110% of the theoretical maximum. But let's leave it to trained athletes, especially those involved in sprinting for speed. For ordinary people, the risk of heart attack is very high, if so overclocked. If you tried a low-carbohydrate diet according to the recommendations of our website and were convinced that it helps, then try also “Chi-run”.
Attention! After a run, in no case should you immediately stop abruptly. This can trigger a heart attack. Read more in the section “We insure against a heart attack during training.” Be sure to walk for a while until the pulse drops. After a few weeks of jogging, you will begin to notice that the pulse has begun to recover faster to normal. This means that your heart is working better and better.
We insure against a heart attack during training
The following categories of people have an increased risk of heart attack during aerobic and anaerobic exercise:
- long-term diabetics
- all patients with diabetes aged 40 years and older,
- people with a family history of heart attacks and / or strokes.
The main rule to prevent a heart attack during a cardio workout is to never stop right away. This applies to jogging or cycling. On the exercise bike, lower the resistance to zero and continue pedaling for a few more minutes. Slow down the pace gradually, by no means sharply, so that your heart rate can gradually decrease to normal. Wear a heart rate monitor no matter what type of physical activity you are engaged in. Almost all heart rate monitors can be used while swimming, if not to dive too deep.
Why is there a high risk of a heart attack at the time of abrupt cessation of exercise? When you run or pedal the bike, you energetically work with your legs. At this time, the muscles of your legs consume a lot of blood, as well as the heart that serves them. While legs move, they help pump blood back to the heart with their muscle strength.
If you abruptly stop working with your legs, then immediately the need for legs and heart for blood does not fall. She continues to remain as tall for some time. Because the heart muscle and legs were deficient in oxygen and nutrients for a long time while you were engaged in physical education. Also in the muscles accumulated metabolic waste, which must be removed.
The force of gravity contributes to the flow of blood to the legs. But when they stopped moving, they no longer help the heart to get its portion. As a result, a short-term but significant deficiency in nutrition and oxygen is formed for the heart muscle. If your blood vessels that feed the heart are narrowed due to atherosclerosis, then at this point the likelihood of a heart attack is increased. Therefore, abruptly stopping is dangerous.
Cardiovascular Training for Diabetes: Findings
Exercises for the heart - this is a jogging, swimming, biking, skiing, rowing exercises. It is very important to deal with them in order to prevent a heart attack, to look and feel more cheerful than peers. In fact, what's the point of carefully controlling your blood sugar for diabetes just to die of a heart attack in your prime? Workouts for the cardiovascular system normalize blood pressure, prevent heart attack and stroke, give vigor. They enhance the effects of insulin on cells, making diabetes easier to control.
If you have developed diabetes complications that impose serious restrictions on physical education, then at least walk more. A set of exercises with light dumbbells for diabetic patients with complications is also suitable. The vast majority of people suffering from type 1 or type 2 diabetes can do the “serious” exercises for the cardiovascular system that we have listed above. The most affordable of them is a relaxing wellness jogging, in second place is swimming in the pool. The article presents the methodology of how to learn to enjoy running and swimming. If you master it, then you will like to exercise regularly. You will train several times a week for the “narcotic” pleasure of endorphins, and improving your health will be a pleasant side effect.
The optimal volume of classes and loads
Aerobic exercise will have a beneficial effect if its duration is at least 20-25 minutes. It is not necessary to squeeze all the juices out intensively in 20 minutes. You need to create such a complex of conditions under which your body goes into energy saving mode due to subcutaneous fat. This means that your heart rate during exercise should not go beyond the so-called target zone. The boundaries of this target zone can be calculated using the formula: your age should be subtracted from 220, multiply the resulting number by 0.6 (lower limit), and after that by 0.8 (upper limit). For example, if your age is 35 years old, the heart rate for you will be the heart rate in the range of 111-148 beats / min (220-35 = 185, 185x0.6 = 111– the lower limit, 185x0.8 = 148 - the upper limit). It is in such a framework of the physiological work of your body that aerobic exercise will have a beneficial effect.
What muscles work
Running strengthens not only the legs and buttocks. The muscles of the body, including the press, are also included in the work. But let's start with the legs.
During running, the quadriceps (the front surface of the thigh), the muscles of the posterior thigh, the front and rear tibial muscles (lower leg), and the calf muscles work. All gluteal muscles are tense: large, medium and small, the iliopsoas muscle responsible for hip flexion works.
In addition, running strengthens the muscles of the upper and lower press, as well as the intercostal muscles responsible for the strong body. The work of the hands while running provides a small load on the biceps, triceps and latissimus dorsi.
Of course, running will not help you build up the relief muscles (arms and legs), but it is quite enough to keep them in good shape.
Running is right for you if:
- you want to pump the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, strengthen (but not pump) muscles, increase endurance,
- you want to lose weight and carefully approach the choice of load (a rapid increase in intensity can slow down metabolism),
- You are looking for the cheapest type of cardio load - without gyms, pools and exercise machines.
Running is not suitable for you if:
- you have a lot of extra pounds and problems with the joints of the legs. During running, a large load goes to the joints of the legs, and in combination with overweight and unprepared muscles and ligaments, running sessions are fraught with injuries,
- you hate running since childhood. Many people remember running through physical education lessons, and these memories are not always pleasant. Perhaps a quiet workout with your favorite music will change your opinion about running, but if everything inside you protests against jogging, you do not need to force yourself - choose other types of loads.
Running at the slowest pace requires more effort than quiet cycling, so cycling is a great start for people with poor physical fitness or being overweight.
Pleasant rides on a correctly selected bicycle will not push you away from cardio workouts, and a gradual increase in the load (distance, speed, lift) will help you develop stamina and adjust your figure faster.
Unlike running, there is no shock load on the legs while cycling. This is another plus for people who are not accustomed to serious workloads. In addition, cycling at speeds up to 15 kilometers per hour is indicated for people with varicose veins.
Try cycling if:
- you want to start with small loads,
- during training, you like to observe a changing landscape (yes, it changes during the run, but much more slowly),
- you suffer from varicose veins,
- You want to develop coordination and a sense of balance.
Biking is not suitable for you if:
- you want to quickly lose weight (if you plan to ride at a steady pace on flat tracks, the load and calorie consumption will be minimal),
- you want to train all year round (for the winter you have to go to the gym and train on a stationary bike),
- you do not like to sit during physical activity.
Swimming is an ideal workout for overweight people or problem joints. The probability of getting injured while swimming is practically zero, and the load on the joints is minimal. At the same time, swimming strengthens not only the muscles of the legs, as is the case with a bicycle, but also the arms, shoulders, back and abs.
Due to movements in different planes, swimming strengthens joints and ligaments, develops coordination and improves endurance.
Any cardio load has a positive effect on the respiratory system, but swimming definitely outperforms other sports. While swimming with a crawl or breaststroke, exhalation is not carried out into the air, but into the water - a denser environment, which requires more effort, and after inhaling, the swimmer holds his breath for a certain time. Due to this training, the capacity of the lungs increases, breathing becomes fuller and deeper, the body is more actively saturated with oxygen.
In addition, swimming is great for people with spinal problems. In water, the spine is completely unloaded, pressure on the intervertebral discs is relieved, muscles of the back and press are trained.
Swimming is not suitable for you if:
- you are uncomfortable in the water
- drive to the pool far and uncomfortable. There are still more gyms than pools. In addition, the pools have a certain time of sessions, which may not fit well with your schedule.
This is a great option for someone who is bored of doing cardio exercises alone. Group exercises to the music, a wide variety of movements, the load on different muscle groups and at the same time all the benefits of cardio training.
Aerobics includes active walking, jumping, exercises for stretching and working out different muscles on the floor. Dance aerobics can include elements of a variety of dance styles - latin, mamba, hip hop, zumba (this is just a mixture of aerobics and dance) and many others, at the discretion of the coach.
A popular fitness area is step aerobics. In this case, exercises are performed on elevations - steppes. Basically, it is active walking and stepping on a step, accompanied by tilting the body and movements of the hands.
Kenny Holston / Flickr.com
You should not do aerobics if:
- you have varicose veins, joint or spinal problems,
- you want to gradually increase the load, focusing only on your feelings.
Almost every fitness center has a punching bag and training is held on boxing or kickboxing. This sport will not only provide good cardio, but also help to acquire self-defense skills, develop coordination and speed of reaction.
If you are afraid of the consequences in the form of bruises and bruises, then you can do it only in front of a pear, practicing blows and ligaments. In this case, you will receive the necessary cardio load and practice the equipment, but the self-defense skills will be very weak and are unlikely to be useful to you in a real situation.
Sparring will help you pump the reaction and the right technique much faster. You can hear a hundred times from the trainer that you need to hold your hands high, and still lower them, but if you miss the strike once because of your dropped arms, you will not need to repeat it a second time.
If you like to run, but do not want to train outdoors in bad weather, you automatically head to the treadmill. Running on the street provides a more diverse load on the muscles of the legs, but the exercises on the track are more comfortable and do not require additional sportswear in the demi-season and winter periods.
On a treadmill, you will burn more calories than on an exercise bike, stepper and rowing machine. If you compare the track with an elliptical trainer, there is no consensus on which one helps to burn more calories. The figures are approximately equal.
On the treadmill, you can create an individual workout or select ones already on the computer, increase the angle of inclination and speed, set interval workouts with high intensity, or just walk if you are too early to run.
- the most natural burden for man
- fast calorie expenditure
- the ability to choose a program and create a diverse workout.
- shock load on the feet and knees,
- some people are afraid to "fly away" from the track, so they hold onto the handrails while running, doing exercises incorrectly.
This is the most gentle and safe form of cardio in the gym, so it is often recommended for recovery from injuries. Compared to running on a track, when exercising on a stationary bike, the load on the joints is minimal.
However, only the lower body works on the exercise bike, and the arms, shoulders and body are devoid of even the insignificant load that falls on them while running, not to mention such simulators as elliptical and rowing.
- low calorie expenditure
- lack of load on the shoulders, arms and body.
An elliptical trainer will appeal to those who do not like running, but want to burn as many calories as possible. This simulator, as it were, simulates climbing stairs or skiing: the foot starts to step, then it goes along the path of the ellipse and returns to the top point. Hands are also involved. You can move large handrails, reducing the load on the legs and increasing the tension of the muscles of the body and arms.
Unlike running, exercises on the elliptical trainer do not load the joints of the legs, since there is no shock load. At the same time, calorie consumption during exercises on an ellipse can be even higher than when running at a calm pace.
By adjusting the position of the body, you can work out specific muscle groups. For example, if you want to load quadriceps and calf muscles, you need to tilt the body forward, holding the small arms of the simulator, and if you need to pump the buttocks, you need to lean back and pedal as if sitting on a chair.
Some elliptical trainers can work in stepper mode, when the legs do not follow the path of the ellipse, and the movement resembles climbing stairs.
- minimum load on the joints,
- high calorie intake
- the ability to pump the muscles of the legs, back, shoulders and arms,
- the ability to regulate the load on certain muscle groups.
- at first it’s rather inconvenient to walk on it, you need to adapt.
This simulator simulates climbing stairs - a fairly natural and often found in everyday life load.
There are several types of steppers:
- The classic compact simulator without handrails or the option with two types of handrails and a display.
- Balancing stepper with expanders, on which you turn from side to side. On such a simulator, both legs and arms participate in the movement.
- Rotary stepper with a rotating handle, on which you completely rotate the body from side to side while walking.
Different muscle groups are pumped depending on the simulator. The classic stepper mainly loads the muscles of the legs: calves, hips and buttocks. The simulator with expanders additionally provides pressure on the arms and press, and also develops a sense of balance. In addition to the legs, the rotary stepper uses the muscles of the back, chest and shoulders.
Even on the simplest stepper, you can adjust the load on certain muscle groups by simply changing the position of the body. If you keep your back straight, more load goes to the front of the thigh, if you lean forward, to the back of the thigh and buttocks.
The stepper is not the most effective exercise machine for burning calories, especially if you are just starting to exercise. In order for the pulse to remain in the aerobic zone, you will have to maintain a high lifting intensity, and the muscles may not be ready for such a load.
Therefore, before starting to train on the stepper, it is recommended to master other exercise machines - elliptical, exercise bike, treadmill (meaning brisk walking, not running).
- light load on the knee joints,
- compactness of the simulator, it can be put at home,
- You can adjust the load on certain muscle groups, changing the technique.
- a heavy load on the hip joint
- you need to maintain high intensity so that the pulse remains in the aerobic zone.
As the name implies, this simulator simulates rowing. You rest your feet on the platform of the simulator (fix the feet with fixtures) and grasp the handle. In this position, the housing is slightly inclined forward, and the press is already in tension.
Next, you push off from the platform, pull back on the movable seat and pull the handle to your stomach. During the push, the muscles of the hips and buttocks tighten (if you do not strain your legs enough, the load goes to the lower back, which can result in injury), and when you pull the handle to the stomach, the back muscles and biceps are included in the work.
At the end of the stroke, when you return to the starting position, the muscles of the abs, hips and buttocks work, and when the arms go forward, following the handle, the triceps and abs are tensed.
Depending on the position of the body, the rowing machine allows you to strengthen different muscle groups. For example, a direct grip on the handle provides large loads on the back muscles and triceps, and a reverse grip on the biceps, pectoral muscles and shoulders.
- first of all, the muscles of the back and shoulders are strengthened,
- You can adjust the load on different muscles depending on the position of the body.
- with improper technique, you can tear your back or damage your knees.
It’s impossible not to mention this sports equipment, although you won’t even call it a simulator. There are a huge number of types of jumps: with a change of legs, double scrolling of the rope, jumping from side to side, on one leg and so on.
Jumping rope is very effective in terms of burning calories, but you need to jump not 5-10 minutes, but not less than half an hour.
If you last jumped on a skipping rope at school in physical education, most likely, half an hour of non-stop jumping will seem to you an unrealistic record.
Even the most ordinary two-legged jumps require practice. For example, beginners bounce too high, while to scroll the rope you need to tear off the floor no more than three centimeters. Too high a jump complicates the workout, so that a person gets tired in a minute and cannot continue to do further.
During jumping rope, the main load falls on the calf muscles, the muscles of the hips and buttocks tense a little less. Also involved in the jump are the muscles of the body - the rectus and oblique muscles of the abdomen, the latissimus dorsi, extensors of the back.
- a simple and cheap simulator that does not require going to the gym,
- Compared to running, the minimum load on the joints of the legs and spine.
- to turn jumping rope into a long aerobic load, you need to learn how to jump,
- a large load on the calf muscles is not at all what they usually want to achieve.
So, we have analyzed the main types of cardio loads and cardio simulators. I hope you find your workout and try it soon.
If you use a different type of cardio load, tell us about it in the comments.
Where to feel the pulse and how to count it?
On the surface of the human body there are several zones where the pulse can be most clearly felt. But we will have enough for these purposes 1-2 such zones. Having felt the artery in the area of the wrist on the inside of your hand, you should press it to the bone with the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers, while you should feel a pulse wave. Another way to feel and count your own pulse is to place your fingers at the end of the neck, under the jaw, in the middle between the earlobe and chin. Here you can feel the pulse wave even easier and more distinctly than on the wrist. You should count the number of “pulses” of the pulse for a period of time that will be one minute (for this you can use both a stopwatch and a regular watch with a second pointer).
And now about the intensity of classes. The trick here is that during training, you must keep your heart rate within your target zone, not going beyond its upper and lower limits.
A great property of aerobic exercise is that it will be beneficial throughout the entire target area. Based on this, even heart rate on the line of the lower border is the very optimal load that is quite feasible for almost any person.
A great way to check if you are too tense during running classes is the “speech test”. Hum softly some favorite song or read your favorite poems during training. As soon as you have difficulties in terms of continuous pronunciation - it will become too intermittent, then you should just slow down the pace of your training. Your pulse and your breath will go to a less intense level, which at the moment will be optimal for you.
Where is better to run
Of course, you can do jogging anywhere, but the most acceptable and safe for these purposes will be smooth, even surfaces. Here grass, asphalt pavement, cinder path, various kinds of artificial coatings, “treadmills”, etc. are suitable. However, remember that the softer the surface, the less load will be on your leg joints. Running indoors and doing activities on the street give the body exactly the same benefits, unless clean air is most enjoyable for most people.
Classes on the "treadmill":
- always give you the opportunity to run on a flat surface, so the likelihood that you stumble here is significantly less,
- "Treadmills", as a technical device, are completely environmentally friendly,
- they give you the opportunity to follow information that indicates your speed, distance covered by you, heart rate, which, of course, will help you in drawing up and adjusting the training schedule,
- "Treadmills" allow you to set and adjust your running parameters that are convenient for you: the required distances, surface slope, speed,
- such technical devices give you the opportunity to train at home, you become independent of atmospheric phenomena, other objective and subjective conditions that do not allow you to run on the street.
- Allows you to work out for free
- your workouts will never bother anyone, because you will conduct them on the street,
- running on the street will allow you to enjoy the fresh air, which for many is an important factor,
- running in the fresh air gives you an excellent opportunity for new acquaintances and communication with your “running like-minded people”.
So, to summarize, we can say that running is a simple and effective means of healing and increasing the overall stamina of the body. Health running classes do not require any expensive devices or special skills from you. You yourself set the scope of the load, as well as the time frame for such physical education. Running develops all your muscle groups and positively affects absolutely all body systems, helping in the fight and in the prevention of diseases. It’s difficult and unusual only at the beginning of classes, then later for no money you can no longer refuse such a simple and pleasant means of maintaining your own body in good shape!