Prediabetes is a condition accompanied by impaired glucose tolerance. As a result, the sugar-lowering hormone (insulin) is not produced by the pancreas in the right amount. With this diagnosis, there is always a risk that the prediabetic state can go into type 2 diabetes. However, panic is not worth it, it is treatable. What efforts should be made for this?
The risk group for prediabetes includes people who meet several parameters.
- Women who have given birth to a baby weighing more than 3.5 kg. Also, those who have been diagnosed with gestational diabetes during pregnancy are susceptible to the disease.
- People whose family members suffered from type 2 diabetes.
- Women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
- Leading an inactive lifestyle.
- Elderly people. This is due to the fact that over the years, the body's ability to process sugar decreases.
- African Americans, Hispanics, Indians, and Pacific Islanders. Representatives of these peoples are more susceptible to diabetes.
- People with low levels of good and high cholesterol.
An equally common cause of prediabetes is overweight or obesity, especially in the abdomen. As practice shows, in order to improve the state of health, you need to lose 10-15% of the mass.
Especially cautious should be those who suffer from high blood pressure. If blood pressure is more than 140/90, it is recommended to regularly take a blood test for sugar.
The child may also show prediabetes. This is the result of serious surgery or serious infections.
Symptoms of prediabetes in women and in men do not differ. In children, the disease manifests itself in the same way as in adults. One of the common signs of a condition is insomnia. The problem occurs when pancreatic function deteriorates, malfunctions in the process of sugar metabolism and a decrease in insulin production.
With an increased glucose level, the blood becomes thicker. To dilute it, the body requires more fluid. There is a feeling of unquenchable thirst, frequent urge to urinate.
The next sign of prediabetes is a sharp causeless weight loss. With insulin production disorders, sugar accumulates in the blood. However, it does not enter tissue cells. This leads to weight loss and lack of energy.
Due to thickening of the blood, it passes worse through the capillaries and small vessels. This leads to poor blood supply to organs. As a result, skin itching, headaches, migraines occur, and vision deteriorates. At the same time, the process of nutrient entry into the tissue is disrupted. This provokes muscle cramps.
Among the less pronounced symptoms of prediabetes are chronic fatigue and irritability. Despite a balanced diet, the patient is constantly tormented by a feeling of hunger.
In children, the symptoms are the same as in adults.
To determine prediabetes, two types of studies are performed: a fasting blood sugar test and an oral glucose tolerance test.
During the second test, blood sugar is measured first on an empty stomach. Then the patient is given a drink containing a large amount of glucose. After 2 hours, the sugar level is determined again.
|Norm||Below 140 mg / dl (7.7 mmol / L)|
|Prediabetes||140–199 mg / dl (7.7–11.1 mmol / L)|
|Diabetes||More than 200 mg / dl (11.1 mmol / l)|
It is necessary to determine the level of sugar on an empty stomach 8 hours after starvation. The most suitable time for research is the morning immediately after waking up. So the patient is easier to endure a forced refusal of food.
|Norm||Below 100 mg / dl (5.5 mmol / L)|
|Prediabetes||100–125 mg / dl (5.5–6.9 mmol / L)|
|Diabetes||More than 126 mg / dl (7 mmol / l)|
Drug treatment of prediabetes
Among the drugs used in the treatment of prediabetes, Metformin has proven itself in a dosage of 850 or 1000. It is a hypoglycemic drug that can reduce the amount of glucose produced by the body and eliminate glucose tolerance. Some of its analogues are effective: Glucofage, Metformin-BMS, Glycomet, Metfogamma.
At the beginning of treatment, the patient is prescribed 1000 mg of the drug per day. The duration of the course is 1-2 weeks. Then the dose of the medicine may increase. Its maximum values are 3000 mg per day. To ensure that the body quickly adapts to the action of the drug, doctors recommend dividing the daily dose into 2-3 doses.
Subject to dosages and proper use, drugs rarely cause adverse reactions. However, their use is limited to certain contraindications:
- hepatic, adrenal and renal failure,
- individual intolerance of constituent components,
- period of pregnancy and breastfeeding,
- surgical interventions
- infectious diseases,
- chronic alcoholism,
- precomatose state and lactic acidosis.
While the body gets used to Metformin, the patient may complain of indigestion. After 1-2 weeks, this reaction will disappear on its own. In rare cases, there are signs of dehydration, diabetic foot and hypoxia.
The diet for prediabetes is one of the main components of a successful recovery. The first recommendation of endocrinologists and nutritionists is to reduce servings. It is better to eat often, up to 6 times a day. Also discard low-fat foods and fast carbohydrates. Eliminate baking, cookies, cakes and pastries from the diet. It is with their use that a jump in the level of glucose in the body occurs. With a disturbed metabolism of carbohydrates, sugar accumulates in the blood and does not pass into the tissue.
The list of allowed products is quite large. When prediabetes is recommended to adhere to the following principles of nutrition.
- Prefer low-fat foods with a low glycemic index and a lot of fiber.
- Watch the calorie intake. Focus on the quality of food: the body must receive proteins, fats and complex carbohydrates.
- Increase your intake of clean water. Remember: carbonated drinks will not bring benefits.
- Eat plenty of herbs, mushrooms and vegetables.
- Reduce your diet with high starch foods (white rice, potatoes).
- Steam dishes, cook and bake.
An important component of treatment for prediabetes is good physical activity. Sports combined with diet will provide the desired result. The load on the body, let's gradually. It is important to achieve moderate growth in heart rate.
Choose the type of load yourself, following personal preferences. It can be classes in the fitness center, active walks, tennis, volleyball, jogging or Nordic walking. To improve health, you need a daily 30-minute workout, a week - at least 5 lessons.
During and after exercise, sugar is converted to energy. Tissues absorb insulin better, so the likelihood of developing diabetes is reduced.
Drugs prepared according to the recipes of traditional medicine will not cure prediabetes. However, they will contribute to lowering glucose levels and strengthening the body's defenses. Unlike medicines, natural remedies practically do not cause adverse reactions. But sometimes there may be an increased individual sensitivity to the substances contained in plants.
Eat buckwheat regularly. Grind the grits through a coffee grinder to prepare the dish. Pour cereal flour with kefir (at the rate of 2 tbsp. Buckwheat per glass of drink) and leave overnight. Use the prepared mixture in the morning on an empty stomach.
With prediabetes, an infusion of elecampane rhizomes, currant leaves and blueberries will benefit. Pour the raw materials with boiling water (1 tbsp. Per glass of water). Cool the infusion and drink 50 ml each day. You can stop treatment immediately after feeling better.
Equally valuable is a decoction of flaxseed. Grind the raw materials in a coffee grinder. Pour the powder with water (1 tbsp. Per glass of water) and boil for 5 minutes. Drink on an empty stomach before breakfast.
Many plants possess sugar-lowering properties, including bean pods, medicinal goatberry, common blueberry fruits and leaves, currant and walnut leaves, St. John's wort, yarrow, rowan berries, wild rose and viburnum, lingonberry, dandelion roots, garlic and cuff. Apply them in the form of decoctions, teas or infusions. They contain a lot of substances necessary for a weakened body.
Ready-made phyto-collections are freely sold in the pharmacy. The most famous are Arfazetin, Vitaflor and others.
Possible complications of prediabetes
One of the dangerous complications is diabetic lower limb angiopathy. This disease manifests itself in the defeat of capillaries, veins and arteries. It is systemic in nature.
If you do not start therapy in a timely manner, other complications associated with type 2 diabetes will appear. For example, diseases of the kidneys and heart, damage to the nerve endings of organs.
Forecasts with a diagnosis of prediabetes are quite favorable. The disorder does not always translate into diabetes. Using the complex of medicines, sports and diet, you can provide normal blood sugar.
Despite the fact that solid age is considered one of the risk factors for prediabetes, this pathology is also diagnosed in childhood. According to statistics, the number of "sick" children is equal to the number of adult patients with this diagnosis. In this case, the most common cause of the development of this metabolic pathology is transferred infectious diseases, which, combined with a hereditary predisposition, create a vicious cycle that causes inhibition of glucose metabolism. Prediabetes is diagnosed in children as well as in adults.
Women may suffer from prediabetes more often than men. This is due to the physiological characteristics of the female body, designed to continue the human race. Any abnormalities during pregnancy and childbirth, including the high birth weight of a newborn, may provoke symptoms of prediabetes in the future.
In 2015, an estimated 33.9% of the US adult population aged 18 years or older (84.1 million people) had prediabetes depending on fasting glucose or A1C. Nearly half (48.3%) of adults 65 years of age and older had prediabetes.
Among adults with prediabetes, 11.6% reported that healthcare providers said they had this condition.
The age-adjusted data for 2011-2014 showed that men (36.6%) are more affected by prediabetes than women (29.3%). The prevalence of prediabetes was the same among racial and ethnic groups.
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Causes of Prediabetes
Such a condition as prediabetes is manifested primarily by an increase in blood sugar. Most often, it is detected completely by accident when a person donates blood in connection with another disease, for preventive purposes, when pregnancy is detected, etc. High levels of blood sugar cannot but concern both the doctor and his patient, who immediately has an urgent question: how could this happen and what caused the appearance of a significant concentration of glucose in blood plasma?
The reason for the pathological increase in sugar level in biological fluids, which is the main characteristic of prediabetes, is unlikely to be the use of a large number of sweets, unless there is a violation of glucose digestibility in the body. If sugar indicators are not high, it’s still too early to talk about the development of diabetes mellitus, so these patients are at risk of developing this disease.
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But the risk factors for prediabetes in different patients may be different. So for women, a provoking factor can be:
- gestational diabetes or glucosuria during pregnancy
- birth of a large child weighing more than 4 kg
- birth of a child with developmental defects or a dead baby
- the development of polycystic ovary.
Patients, male and female, are more likely to develop prediabetes if they are over 45 years old and are also overweight. Prediabetes can also develop in young people with a body mass index of more than 25.
High blood pressure (from 140/90 and above) and poor heredity can become factors in the development of prediabetes. As for hereditary predisposition, prediabetes is more likely to develop in those whose relatives suffer from diabetes (at least one of the parents).
The tendency to develop prediabetes is observed in representatives of individual races. The Caucasian race does not have such a predisposition. But if a child has become the fruit of love of a mixed marriage, and one of his parents is a representative of an Asian or Negroid race or a native of America, the baby will have a much higher chance of developing prediabetes than his European relatives.
Identical twins are also at a high risk of developing a prediabetic state if diabetes was diagnosed in one of the parents or close relatives.
Some pathologies of health can also contribute to the development of prediabetes. Patients with obesity, vascular atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, gout, chronic diseases of the liver, kidneys and biliary tract, UTI, infectious respiratory infections and neuropathies are also at risk for impaired carbohydrate metabolism.
Prediabetes can be provoked by such diseases and pathological conditions as hyperuricemia, alimentary and renal glucosuria, episodic glucosuria and hyperglycemia, which are manifested in a state of stress, periodontal disease, furunculosis, spontaneous hypoglycemia. And, of course, it is not surprising if prediabetes develops in patients with pancreatic disorders.
The presence of one of the risk factors does not mean that at some point glucose in the blood will be detected. This is more likely if there are 2 or more provoking factors. For example, an age of more than 45 years and a large body weight or high blood pressure, the birth of a large child at a young age and disruption of the pancreas in the older, etc.
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Our body is a complex system, for the full work of which proteins, fats and carbohydrates are equally necessary. All this we can get as part of food. And our body subsequently benefits from this certain benefit.
So carbohydrate-containing products supply glucose to our body, which for it is the main source of energy. In order for the cells to be able to freely extract this same energy from glucose, the pancreas produces a special enzyme - insulin. Insulin is involved in glucose metabolism, as a result of which normal functioning of the body is ensured.
If the pancreas, due to some circumstances, does not produce enough insulin, sugar is only partially absorbed, while the rest of it enters the bloodstream, where it is detected as a result of tests. In this case, they talk about the development of diabetes.
If the appearance of glucose in the analyzes is associated not so much with insufficient insulin production as with impaired cell susceptibility to insulin, they speak of the development of a condition such as prediabetes, which is the beginning of the finish line leading to diabetes mellitus.
Prediabetes is not yet considered a disease, but it is also impossible to name a patient with high blood sugar levels absolutely healthy.
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Symptoms of prediabetes
In many patients, a pathology such as prediabetes is detected by doctors by accident. A person, for example, complains of pain in the kidneys, and prescribed tests show a small, but clinically significant increase in blood glucose levels. The patient may not even feel any changes in his body, but changes in the composition of the blood force the doctor to take such a person in control.
If there is a single case of the appearance of sugar in the blood, and it is associated with the abuse of sweets, there is no reason to worry especially. But if a second analysis shows the presence of sugar, you need to think and take all measures to prevent prediabetes from developing into a serious, practically incurable disease that forces a person to adhere to certain restrictions throughout his life.
Normally, blood sugar should not exceed 5.5 mmol / L. If it becomes larger, but still does not reach a critical point of 7 mmol / L, this is the first sign of the development of prediabetes. Fluctuations in blood sugar concentration within these limits are not considered a sign of diabetes mellitus, but only a possible harbinger of it.
Other symptoms of prediabetes are largely reminiscent of manifestations of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. What signs are worth paying attention to?
- A metabolic disorder provokes hormonal disruptions in the body, and they, in turn, cause problems with night rest (insomnia, difficulty falling asleep, frequent causeless awakenings, etc.).
- An increase in sugar concentration causes an increase in blood viscosity, which makes it difficult to flow through small vessels. The patient begins to feel these difficulties in the form of itchy skin.
- For the same reason, visual acuity may worsen, because because of the increased density, the blood does not supply oxygen and nutrients to the optic nerve.
- If the sugar concentration exceeds 6 mmol / L, a constant, excruciating thirst appears, which disappears only after a decrease in sugar level. The higher the blood sugar, the more our body begins to need fluid. He needs water to thin the blood and maintain the vital functions of cells, which, due to the action of glucose, begin to experience moisture deficiency.
- Rapid urination is again caused by the effects of glucose on the kidneys and the use of large amounts of fluid.
- Unreasonable weight loss is also caused by elevated sugar levels. A person continues to eat the same as before, but due to a violation of glucose metabolism, he constantly experiences a lack of energy. Energy consumption remains the same, which causes an increase in the conversion of fats to energy, and hence weight loss. The patient begins to feel very exhausted, tired.
- Any metabolic disorder causes a deterioration in cellular nutrition, which provokes the appearance of a convulsive syndrome.
- A sharp increase in plasma sugar provokes a condition that is characterized as hot flashes or sudden bouts of heat.
- Violation of blood flow in the vessels can provoke migraine-like headaches, a feeling of heaviness and squeezing in the limbs, especially in the legs.
- In men, a violation of the blood supply to organs due to increased blood density can cause problems with potency.
When these symptoms appear, the decisive indicator for the diagnosis is still the level of sugar in the blood. It is from him that we can determine what we are dealing with: the initial stage of diabetes mellitus or its precursor.
Prediabetes and pregnancy
During pregnancy, all the organs and systems of the expectant mother begin to function in an enhanced mode. Mommy now breathes and eats for two. It is clear that the production of insulin in her body also increases. This situation is characterized by a large load on the insular apparatus.
If a woman before pregnancy was diagnosed with prediabetes with impaired glucose uptake, then in the future it can easily develop into type 2 diabetes mellitus even without the influence of other provoking factors.
In addition, during pregnancy, the body's need for insulin can greatly increase. Most often this happens just in the middle of the term (from 20 to 24 weeks). The pancreas may not be able to cope with the duties assigned to it and a pregnant woman has to inject insulin-containing drugs. In this case, the longer the term, the higher the dose of insulin may be required.
But even with the transition of prediabetes to a mild degree of apparent diabetes, it is not always possible to adjust blood sugar levels through dietary treatment, and again you have to resort to insulin injections.
With prediabetes, a person has problems with glucose tolerance in the body. That is, as a result of the fact that sugar that gets into the blood is poorly absorbed, its concentration begins to increase. With such disorders, patients are diagnosed with elevated fasting sugar levels, which range from 5.5 to 6.9 mmol / L.
The main criteria for prediabetes are as follows:
- fasting blood glucose - 5.5-6.99 mmol / l,
- carbohydrate level 2 hours after a meal - 7.9-11.0 mmol / l,
- the indicator of glycated hemoglobin is 5.8-6.4 mmol / l.
At risk for the occurrence of pathological symptoms of the pre-diabetes state are obese people, women and men over the age of 50 years, the fairer sex with a diagnosed polycystic ovary and gestational diabetes in the anamnesis, as well as patients who have an increase in cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood .
A number of factors contribute to the disruption of carbohydrate metabolism, including:
- periodic or persistent increase in blood pressure,
- chronic pathologies of internal organs, in particular, the heart, kidneys, liver,
- the use of so-called diabetogenic drugs, namely, oral contraceptives and glucocorticoids,
- sedentary lifestyle,
- stressful conditions
- endocrine diseases,
- autoimmune diseases
- bad habits (smoking, drinking),
- genetic predisposition.
In children, impaired glucose tolerance is not less common than in adults. The causes of its appearance in young patients may be transferred infectious ailments, shock conditions, severe stress or surgical interventions.
What is the blood sugar level of a healthy person?
Glucose is a simple carbohydrate that serves as an energy substrate for all processes in the body.
It is a decomposition product of complex carbohydrate compounds and enters the bloodstream from the digestive tract.
In response to an increase in sugar levels in the body, the pancreas produces the necessary amount of the hormone insulin, which promotes the deposition of glucose in designated places. In a healthy person, the amount of glucose in the blood is 3.5-5.5 mmol / L.
After eating, this indicator, of course, rises, but after two hours it should return to normal. It is customary to talk about impaired glucose tolerance with an increase in sugar to 6.9 mmol / L, and diabetes mellitus if the glucose level rises above 7 mmol / L.
It is possible to determine the prediabetic state in time only in case of periodic medical examination. Impaired glucose tolerance is one of the insidious pathological processes, which in most clinical cases are asymptomatic. Manifestations of pathology appear already at a rather advanced stage.
Prediabetes may be accompanied by symptoms such as:
- intense thirst, which is explained by the desire of the body to make up for the deficiency of fluid and make blood less likely to eliminate the problem with its passage through the vessels,
- increased urination, especially at night,
- rapid and sudden weight loss associated with a deficiency in insulin synthesis, a lack of glucose uptake and a lack of energy to ensure the normal functionality of organ structures,
- an increase in sugar concentration leads to a feeling of heat throughout the body,
- the occurrence of seizures, which contributes to the negative impact of insufficient glucose on muscle tissue,
- sleep problems in the form of insomnia develop on the background of a disturbed hormonal background and insufficient production of insulin,
- damage to the vascular wall and an increase in blood density leads to the appearance of itching in different parts of the body and a sharp decrease in the quality of vision,
- migraine headaches and heaviness in the temples,
- hyperglycemia, which does not pass after two or more hours after a snack.
Very often, impaired glucose tolerance is diagnosed in mature women and even young girls. This is due to the fact that the female body is constantly experiencing jumps in hormones that negatively affect insulin levels.
With prediabetes, representatives of the weaker sex can developthrush.
The fact is that sugar is an excellent nutrient medium for fungi of the genus Candida. In this case, taking pharmaceuticals rarely improves the situation.
To get rid of thrush, a woman with prediabetes should be examined by an endocrinologist, normalize her diet and achieve a decrease in blood glucose.
An increased amount of sugar in the body adversely affects the function of the reproductive sphere of men. Representatives of the strong half of humanity suffering from prediabetes often have a decrease in libido, a decrease in potency, and erectile dysfunction.
In sick men, when taking sperm for analysis, deterioration of its quality is often determined, mainly due to a decrease in the number of healthy sperm.
Symptoms in children
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You can suspect the development of prediabetes in a small child due to the following symptoms:
- intense thirst
- frequent use of the toilet, especially at night,
- excessive hunger, which entails an increase in the frequency of meals and an increase in body weight,
- severe fatigue when a child gets tired faster than his peers when performing physical exercises or active games,
- migraine headaches
- numbness of the limbs
- itchy skin
- decreased quality of vision.
Prediabetes in children is often the cause of increased blood coagulation. Such a violation leads to a decrease in blood flow velocity and a deterioration in the blood supply to the internal organs, which negatively affects their function.
Methods for getting rid of prediabetes
Prediabetes is one of the pathological conditions that need correction.
Ignoring the problem is fraught with sad consequences for a sick person, since sooner or later the painful process transforms into diabetes mellitus itself.
Before starting treatment, the patient must undergo blood tests to determine the level of sugar in the body, and also, if necessary, an oral glucose tolerance test.
An evaluation of the results of the analyzes is carried out by a specialist in endocrinology. The presence of a disease in a person is indicated by an increased level of glucose in the blood plasma, which exceeds the mark of 6.1 mmol / L.
The treatment of prediabetes includes several key points:
- changing eating habits and following a special diet,
- dosed physical activity,
- getting rid of extra pounds and bad habits.
In addition, doctors recommend that patients with high blood sugar control the level of blood pressure and plasma cholesterol. Sometimes endocrinologists offer potential diabetics the use of medications, in particular Metformin, a hypoglycemic agent to reduce the amount of sugar produced by the liver.
Nutrition with prediabetes has a number of features, including:
- serving size reduction
- refusal to eat carbohydrates with fast digestibility, carbonated drinks, fried and smoked foods,
- introduction to the daily menu of foods with a low glycemic index and low fat content,
- increased consumption of clean water, herbs, vegetables and mushrooms,
- the exclusion of low-fat foods from the diet and the minimization of the consumption of white rice and potatoes.
Physical activity plays a huge role in the treatment of prediabetes state. In combination with a diet, sports allow patients to get excellent results and normalize sugar levels. Physical activity should be moderate. It can be increased only gradually and under the supervision of specialists.
It is very important to control the heartbeat during exercise and make sure that blood pressure does not increase.
What is the danger of prediabetes?
Prediabetic disorders cannot be ignored. The fact is that over time, a violation of glucose tolerance develops into type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is an incurable disease that significantly worsens the quality of human life.
Prediabetes can be complicated by a number of other pathological changes in organs and systems:
- deterioration of the state of blood vessels and the development of tissue ischemia caused by a violation of their blood supply,
- neurological disorders
- ulcerative lesions and gangrene,
- decreased vision.
About the concept and treatment of prediabetes in the video:
If the condition of a person with prediabetes worsens, and various kinds of complications appear, you should not postpone the visit to the doctor. The specialist will conduct all necessary studies and prescribe medication to normalize the pathological processes.
Video: What to do to prevent diabetes from becoming a diabetes?
Proper nutrition and an active lifestyle will help prevent prediabetes. If, during the diagnosis, it was still detected, then it is necessary to immediately begin treatment and completely change the entire lifestyle. Timely measures taken help to avoid complications such as various diseases of the heart, kidneys, liver and eyes. It is worth remembering that treatment should be carried out only in accordance with all the requirements of a qualified specialist.
Many do not even want to think that diabetes can affect them. For some reason, these people believe that neighbors, in the movies, have such diseases, and they will pass by them and not even touch them.
And then, during the medical examination, they take a blood test, and it turns out that the sugar is already 8, or maybe even higher, and the doctors' forecast is disappointing. This situation can be prevented if the signs of the disease are recognized in time at the very beginning of its origin. What is prediabetes?
Prediabetes is a high degree of probability of the onset and development of diabetes. Can this condition be considered the initial stage of the disease?
It is very difficult to draw a clear line here. People with prediabetes can already develop damage to the tissues of the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and organs of vision.
Scientific studies show that chronic complications begin to develop already at the pre-diabetic stage.When diabetes is diagnosed, organ damage is already evident and it is impossible to prevent it. Therefore, timely recognition of this condition is necessary.
People in this position are especially at risk for type 2 diabetes. However, this condition is amenable to correction. Changing your lifestyle, eradicating unhealthy habits, you can restore lost health and avoid more serious pathologies.
There are a number of reasons that cause a prediabetes state. First of all, this is a hereditary predisposition.
Most experts believe that the likelihood of getting sick increases significantly if there have already been cases of this disease in the family or among close relatives.
One of the most significant risk factors is obesity. This reason, fortunately, can be eliminated if the patient, realizing the seriousness of the problem, gets rid of excess weight, with considerable effort.
Pathological processes in which beta-cell functions are impaired can be an impetus for the development of sugar disease. This is pancreatitis, cancer of the pancreas, as well as diseases or injuries of other endocrine glands.
The role of the trigger that triggers the disease can be played by infection with the hepatitis virus, rubella, chickenpox, and even flu. It is clear that in the vast majority of people, SARS will not cause diabetes. But if this is a person weighed down by heredity and extra pounds, then the flu virus is dangerous for him.
A person who did not have diabetics in the circle of his closest relatives may be ill with ARVI and other infectious diseases many times, while the likelihood of developing and progressing diabetes is much lower than that of a person burdened with poor heredity. So the combination of several risk factors at once increases the risk of the disease many times over.
The following should be called nervous stress as one of the causes of sugar disease. It is especially necessary to avoid nervous and emotional overstrain for persons with a genetic predisposition to diabetes and being overweight.
An important role in increasing risk is played by age - the older a person is, the more prone he is to a disease of sugar disease. Another risk factor is night shifts at work, a shift in sleep and wakefulness. Almost half of the volunteers who agreed to live a biased life had a state of prediabetes.
High glucose is one of the indicators of diabetes of both the first and second types. If you do a blood test several times in a row with an interval of one day, and it shows the presence of hyperglycemia in all periods, diabetes can be assumed.
Table of glucose indicators:
There are other signs of the disease. For example, a strong thirst that almost does not quench. A person drinks a lot, five, or even ten liters a day. This happens because the blood thickens when a lot of sugar accumulates in it.
A certain area in the brain called the hypothalamus is activated and begins to cause a person to feel thirsty. Thus, a person begins to drink a lot if he has a high glucose level. As a result of increased fluid intake, frequent urination appears - the person is actually “attached” to the toilet.
Since the uptake of glucose by the tissues is impaired in diabetes, fatigue and weakness appear. A person feels that he is literally exhausted, sometimes it is difficult for him to even move.
In addition, erectile dysfunction manifests itself in men, which negatively affects the patient's sexual (sexual) sphere of life. In women, the disease sometimes gives cosmetic defects - age spots on the skin of the face, hands, hair and nails become brittle, brittle.
Over the years, the metabolism slows down, and then excess fat prevents glucose from entering the cells - the presence of these factors significantly increases the risk of developing the disease. Also, the pancreas of the elderly begins to produce less insulin with age.
With type 2 disease, weight gain often occurs. The fact is that with this type of diabetes in the blood there is a high content of glucose and, at the same time, insulin. All excesses the body seeks to transfer to adipose tissue, as the most convenient for storage. Because of this, a person begins to gain weight very quickly.
Another symptom is a feeling of numbness in the limbs, tingling. This is especially felt in the hands, fingertips. When normal blood microcirculation is disturbed due to an increase in glucose concentration, this causes a deterioration in the nutrition of nerve endings. Because of this, a person has various unusual sensations in the form of tingling or numbness.
And finally, itchy skin, which is also one of the symptoms of a diabetic disease. This may come as a surprise, how can glucose indicators affect your skin? Everything is very simple. With hyperglycemia, blood circulation worsens, which causes a decrease in immunity. Therefore, in diabetics, the reproduction of a fungal infection on the skin very often begins, which gives a feeling of itching.
The final diagnosis should be made by the endocrinologist, relying not on one, but on several examinations. The specialist will determine whether it is diabetes or not, decide how to treat it, which medications will be most effective in each case.
To prevent diabetes mellitus from becoming an unpleasant surprise, it is necessary to control blood sugar indicators, this can easily be done in a clinic or at home using a glucometer.
To stop the development of diabetes in the initial stages, it is necessary to normalize the mode of work and rest. Harmful to the body as a lack of sleep, and its excess. Physical stress, constant stress at work can be the impetus for the development of serious pathologies, including diabetes. At the stage of prediabetes, folk remedies and various non-traditional methods of treatment will be effective.
You must follow a healthy diet. To cancel trips to the sausage department, to forget about all types of baking, to use instead of white bread products from wholemeal flour with the addition of bran, there is not white rice and pasta, but brown varieties of rice and porridge from whole grain cereals. It is advisable to switch from red meat (lamb, pork) to turkey and chicken, eat more fish.
The main thing is to ensure that there are enough fruits and vegetables in the diet. Half a kilogram every day you need to eat both. Most heart and other diseases arise due to the fact that we eat too little greenery, fresh fruits.
You need to reduce the amount of sweets in your daily menu or eliminate it altogether. Their excess consumption can also be a decisive factor in the development of diabetes.
Four hours of fast walking per week - and diabetes will be far behind. It is necessary to give at least twenty or forty minutes every day on foot, but not at a slow walking pace, but a little faster than usual.
It is advisable to include sports in your daily schedule. You can start with morning exercises for 10-15 minutes a day, gradually increasing the intensity of the load. This will help speed up metabolic processes in the body, reduce glucose, and reduce the amount of extra pounds. Losing weight by 10-15% can significantly reduce the risk of diabetes.
Video material about prediabetes and methods for its treatment:
Physical activity may consist of walking or more serious sports activities. You can choose for yourself jogging, playing tennis, basketball, cycling, skiing. In any case, glucose will be consumed as an energy source, cholesterol levels will decrease, which will serve as an excellent prevention of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular pathologies.
Prediabetes is a warning sign that you are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. This means your blood sugar is higher than it should be. Most people with type 2 diabetes initially had prediabetes. The good news is that lifestyle changes can help you return your blood sugar to normal and prevent or delay the onset of diabetes.
Prediabetes occurs when the body does not respond properly to the hormone insulin and therefore cannot maintain blood glucose (sugar) at a normal level. At the same time, the level of blood sugar is higher than normal, but not enough to establish a diagnosis of diabetes. If not treated, the condition may worsen over time and lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other serious complications, such as heart and large blood vessel diseases, stroke, impaired vision, diseases of the nervous system and kidneys.
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Everyone should know about the main signs of a prediabetes state:
Prediabetes is that face when there is no disease yet, but the amount of sugar in the blood on an empty stomach slightly exceeds the norm (maximum norm 5.5 mmol / L) and is 5.6 - 6.5. With an indicator of 7 mmol / l on an empty stomach, diabetes is diagnosed. Prediabetes is also detected during the glucose tolerance test. With impaired glucose tolerance, they speak of the development of type 2 diabetes.
The main signs that you are starting diabetes.
Prediabetes is treatable; moreover, it is completely cured of it safely. You can stop the further progression of diabetes mellitus, but only if this condition was diagnosed on time and appropriate measures were taken.
According to the WHO, every year in the world 2 million people die from diabetes and its complications. In the absence of qualified support for the body, diabetes leads to various kinds of complications, gradually destroying the human body.
The most common complications are: diabetic gangrene, nephropathy, retinopathy, trophic ulcers, hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis. Diabetes can also lead to the development of cancerous tumors. In almost all cases, a diabetic either dies, struggling with a painful disease, or turns into a real person with a disability.
What do people with diabetes do? The Endocrinological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences has succeeded in making a remedy that completely cures diabetes mellitus.
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In total, there are two ways to bring a person out of a prediabetic state: diet and drug treatment.
Dietary technique with a specially developed set of physical exercises
Everything is very simple and painfully corny. If a person led the wrong lifestyle, abused sweets, poisoned himself with nicotine and alcoholic drinks, then in the end he: could gain excess weight, disrupted the normal functioning of all metabolic processes, which undermined not only immunity, but also triggered self-destruction mechanism. He did not want to come to his senses in time, and none other than prediabetes came to the rescue.
In this case, this comrade is even useful, because it will make a person not only think twice, but also act. On the security of one’s own health and life, a person is offered two options:
1. Put a bold cross on everything and ...
continue your affairs. In the future, you will get acquainted with diabetes, which greatly shakes the "stool" of health, on which you stand with a noose around your neck in the form of complications of diabetes. It is from them that the vast majority of diabetics die. The result is deplorable, isn't it?
Prediabetes is a violation of carbohydrate metabolism, often developing into type 2 diabetes mellitus, but completely reversible if treatment is started on time. This is not a disease, but an occasion to seriously take up your diet and lifestyle. It is precisely prediabetes that helps some people to improve their health, become slimmer and more mobile.
A huge number of modern people over 45 live with prediabetes, not even knowing it. Symptoms of this condition may well be interpreted as inconveniences caused by excess weight or age-related ailments. And all because pre-diabetes occurs mainly in middle-aged overweight people who do not monitor their diet and lead a sedentary lifestyle.
Obesity, especially visceral, contributes to the development of insulin resistance - insensitivity of body tissues to insulin. As a result, the hormone, which is still properly produced by the pancreas, cannot transport glucose to the muscles and liver, even if they need it. It is noted that, with low mobility, the muscles do not fully utilize their own glycogen stores and do not turn to the “storage" - the liver for it.
Thus, glucose consumption is reduced, and with food it continues to come, often in excess quantities. With a constant excess of glucose, the pancreas begins to "work in three shifts", increasing the production of insulin. This helps for some time to almost cope with sugar, keeping its blood level close to normal (up to 6.9 mmol / l). This is a pre-diabetic condition, but not yet a disease.
If you identify the problem in time and take measures, you can normalize the carbohydrate metabolism. Otherwise, the insulin resistance of the tissues will increase, and the overloaded pancreas will begin to reduce the production of insulin. The blood sugar will exceed the upper threshold of acceptable values, and type 2 diabetes will begin.
Despite the reversibility of prediabetes, it is just as dangerous as diabetes itself. After all, the level of glucose in the blood is increased, albeit slightly. The danger is the risk of serious complications from the cardiovascular system, blindness, severe infections, and cancer can develop. Therefore, it is extremely important to timely diagnose pathology and begin treatment.
Prediabetes is a condition characteristic of the initial stage of diabetes mellitus of the second type. The fact is that type 1 diabetes occurs suddenly at a fairly young age, in thin people, but type 2 diabetes develops gradually, and its main reason is not overeating sweets, but rather, overeating in general, since the trigger mechanism of the disease is insulin resistance as consequence of excess weight.
According to many studies, most of all prediabetics among junk food lovers. Food rich in chemical additives and trans fats contributes to the disruption of not only carbohydrate, but also fat metabolism, leads to obesity of internal organs, the replacement of muscle mass by fat, which results in insulin resistance.
An important role in the development of prediabetes is played by heredity, which, however, does not doom a person to a disease. Even if diabetes is a family disease, it is unlikely that a thin, mobile person who eats a balanced diet can eat.
Summarizing the causes of prediabetes, the following risk factors can be distinguished:
- overweight after 45 years, especially with a concentration of fat in the abdomen,
- sedentary lifestyle,
- genetic predisposition
- high cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease,
- a history of gestational diabetes,
- chronic lack of sleep or excess sleep.
As noted above, prediabetes often does not manifest itself. However, people who are attentive to their sensations may notice the same symptoms that indicate diabetes, but in a milder form. It:
- unreasonable thirst and, as a result, frequent urination,
- visual impairment
- chronic fatigue and depression.
All these are manifestations of elevated levels of sugar, which thickens the blood, which means that the blood supply to all organs and systems is deteriorating. Hence the subjective feeling of poor health, blurred vision and thirst (the body is trying to normalize the consistency of blood due to additional fluid).
There are some specific symptoms that are characteristic of women and men. So, women can suffer from poorly cured thrush, since high blood sugar contributes to the development of fungal infections. Men should pay attention to a decrease in potency.
All symptoms may well be interpreted as the natural costs of aging, so the best way to detect a prediabetic state early is to have a regular blood sugar test for people over 45, especially those at risk.
An effective treatment for prediabetes is not possible without a strict diet. The patient will have to comply with the following rules:
It is best to consult a doctor or a qualified nutritionist for a diet. The specialist will calculate the nutritional value of the diet necessary for a particular patient and draw up an individual nutrition plan. You can also use the standard medical diet number 9.
A sample menu for the week to compensate for the pre-diabetic state is presented in the table below (taken here):
What is prediabetes and who is prone to it
The condition when carbohydrate metabolism is already impaired, sugar is higher than normal, but not so much as to talk about type 2 diabetes, is called prediabetes.
Previously, it was considered the zero stage of diabetes, now it is isolated in a separate disease. The initial changes in the metabolism are difficult to notice on their own, but it is easy to identify through laboratory tests.
Types of analyzes:
- Glucose tolerance test it is considered the most reliable for the diagnosis of prediabetes, since most often patients have impaired glucose tolerance. It is a check of the rate of glucose uptake into the tissue. The sugar level in a healthy person is normal 2 hours after a meal. With prediabetes, it will be at least 7.8 mmol / L.
- Fasting Glycemia. The diagnosis of diabetes is made when fasting sugar in a patient’s blood exceeds 7 mmol / L. The norm is less than 6 mmol / l. Prediabetes - all indicators are between 6 and 7 mmol / L. It is about venous blood. If the analysis is taken from the finger, the numbers are slightly lower - 6.1 and 5.6 - how to donate blood for sugar.
- Fasting insulin. When sugar ceases to be eliminated from the blood in time, the pancreas enhances its work. The likelihood of prediabetes is high if the insulin level is greater than 13 μMU / ml.
- Glycated hemoglobin shows whether there has been a rise in blood sugar in the last 3 months. The norm is up to 5.7%. Prediabetes - up to 6.4%. Above is diabetes.
The need and frequency of analysis:
|Age years||Weight||The need for analysis|
|> 45||above normal||High risk of prediabetes, tests should be taken annually.|
|> 45||normal||Medium risk, enough tests every 3 years.|
|25||Every year in the presence of at least one of the factors in the development of prediabetes.|
Factors that increase the likelihood of prediabetes:
- Pressure greater than 140/90 in combination with elevated cholesterol and triglycerides.
- Relatives of the first line are sick with type 2 diabetes.
- You have gestational diabetes during at least one of your pregnancies.
- Gestational diabetes in your mother.
- Weight above 4 kg at birth.
- Belonging to the Negroid or Mongoloid races.
- Low level of physical activity (less than 3 hours per week).
- The presence of hypoglycemia (a drop in sugar levels below normal between meals, the main symptom is internal trembling during hunger).
- Long-term use of diuretics, estrogen, glucocorticoids.
- Drinking more than 3 cups of coffee per day.
- Chronic periodontal disease.
- Frequent skin rashes, boils.
Reasons for development
The main reason for both prediabetes and the second type of diabetes is an increase in tissue resistance to insulin. Insulin is a hormone, one of the functions of which is the delivery of glucose to the cells of the body. In cells with her participation, a number of chemical reactions take place, as a result of which energy is released. Glucose enters the bloodstream from food. If sweets, such as cakes or sweets, were eaten, blood sugar rises sharply, since this type of carbohydrate is quickly absorbed. The pancreas responds to this release by increased insulin production, often with a margin. If complex carbohydrates, such as cereals or vegetables with a large amount of fiber, are supplied with food, sugar is delivered slowly, since it takes time to break it down. At the same time, insulin is produced in small quantities, just enough to spend all the excess sugar in the tissue.
If there is a lot of sugar in the blood, it comes there often in large batches, and its volumes greatly exceed the energy needs of the body, insulin resistance gradually begins to develop. It represents a decrease in insulin effectiveness. Receptors on cell membranes cease to recognize the hormone and let glucose in, sugar level rises, prediabetes develops.
In addition to insulin resistance, the cause of the disease may be insufficient insulin production due to pancreatitis, tumors (e.g., insulinoma), cystic changes, and pancreatic injuries.
Can prediabetes be cured?
The future of a person with prediabetes is completely in his hands. Only he is able to make a choice. You can continue to sit in the evenings in front of the TV with tea and your favorite cake and as a result, spend the end of your life in the fight against diabetes and its many complications. And you can completely change your mind, lifestyle and perceive prediabetes as a reminder that a healthy mind can not do without a healthy body.
The restriction in the menu of fast carbohydrates, weight loss, physical education work wonders. Even minimal effort pays off many times. For example, weight loss of only 7% reduces the risk of diabetes by as much as 58%. A disciplined following all the advice of a doctor can completely cure prediabetes, while reducing the likelihood of hypertension, heart disease and kidney disease by 1.5 times.
How to prevent the development of diabetes
If a lab test showed impaired glucose tolerance, need to make an appointment with the endocrinologist. He will appoint additional tests to find out the risk of diabetes in the near future, to determine the level of damage to the walls of blood vessels. With an unusual form of obesity (for example, in women of the android type), a study of the hormonal background will be prescribed.
Based on the information received about the state of health, an individual program for the treatment of prediabetes will be compiled. It consists of three components: a special diet, exercise and medications. The first two are mandatory, without them metabolic disorders can not be eliminated. But the effectiveness of medicines is much less. They reduce the risk of diabetes by only a third. Therefore, drugs are prescribed as support for very obese people or if the patient does not have enough endurance and perseverance in following a diet.
The use of a special diet
The objectives of the diet for the treatment of prediabetes:
- decrease in calorie intake,
- ensuring a uniform sugar level,
- decrease in the amount of glucose in the blood.
Treatment of prediabetes is impossible without the complete disposal of the diet from fast carbohydrates. These are all products with a glycemic index above 50 units. Examine the GI table, pay attention to foods with a low index, which turned out to be undeservedly forgotten in your menu. Open cookbooks or sites, find recipes based on them. If you manage to form not only healthy, but also tasty for you diet, this will be a huge step towards defeating prediabetes.
What to do to make the diet with prediabetes as effective as possible:
- Fill your refrigerator with permitted foods so as not to be tempted by harmful ones. Take the list of products to the store to exclude random purchases.
- Decorate ready-made dishes, create a cozy atmosphere, look for like-minded people. In short, do everything so that the diet is not perceived as a constraint, but as a step on the path to a healthy life.
- To ensure that glucose enters the blood evenly, eat in small portions 5 times a day.
- When you leave home, take food with you. For pre-diabetes, you can eat chopped vegetables, nuts, and whole grain breads as a snack.
- Stop putting sugar in tea. If you can’t put up with the new taste, buy a sweetener.
- Give up coffee completely. With the slow absorption of caffeine in your body, even moderate consumption of this drink by a third increases the risk of diabetes.
- Consult an endocrinologist. If you have high insulin levels, dairy products will have to be canceled for a couple of months. It is established that they have a high insulin index, that is, they provoke an excessive release of the hormone.
Changing your eating habits with prediabetes is quite difficult. Even your own body will be against you. Over the years, he has become accustomed to the easy production of energy, so any food without fast carbohydrates will seem tasteless and insatiable. It takes time, usually about 2 months, to rebuild the metabolism. If you manage to withstand this period, you will be surprised to feel that fresh vegetables and meat can be tasty, and fruits for dessert bring joy no less than a piece of cake.
And here you can find a low-carb diet for diabetics and try to eat on it - http://diabetiya.ru/produkty/nizkouglevodnaya-dieta-pri-diabete.html
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Head of the Institute of Diabetology - Tatyana Yakovleva
I have been studying diabetes for many years. It is scary when so many people die, and even more become disabled due to diabetes.
I hasten to tell the good news - the Endocrinological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences has managed to develop a medicine that completely cures diabetes mellitus. At the moment, the effectiveness of this drug is approaching 98%.
Another good news: the Ministry of Health has secured the adoption of a special program that compensates for the high cost of the drug. In Russia, diabetics until May 18 (inclusive) can get it - For only 147 rubles!
Physical activity of various kinds
Nutritional adjustments for prediabetes are not enough. It is necessary not only to stabilize the intake of sugar in the body, but also to establish ways for its absorption. The most effective way to reduce insulin resistance and improve the flow of glucose from the blood into the cells is through systematic exercise. Muscles are the main consumer of energy in our body. The more they work, the lower the sugar level will be.
To get rid of prediabetes, becoming an athlete is not necessary. It is believed that for the treatment of metabolic disorders, a half-hour workout daily or hourly three times a week is enough.
The first goal on the path to a healthy life is to break the habit of sitting most of the day. Start moving - walk in the evenings, gradually increasing the pace and distance. Walk to work, go up the stairs, not the elevator, do simple exercises while watching TV or a telephone conversation.
The next step is regular training. Choose a lesson to your liking, check with your doctor if it is allowed in your health condition. For obese people, any activity in the pool or walking is recommended. With a slight excess of weight - running, team games, winter sports, dancing, fitness.
At the beginning of training, the main thing is not to overdo it. Exercise should provide a moderate increase in heart rate. If you are tired, slow down. It is better to achieve your goal a little later than to leave the race at half treatment.
Having increased activity, do not forget about a good rest. So that the body can easily part with the accumulated fat, you need to sleep about 8 hours. Insulin is produced at night in significantly smaller quantities, so blood from excess sugar must be freed in advance: conduct an evening workout and do not eat 2 hours before bedtime.
Are drugs needed?
More often than not, lifestyle changes are enough to completely cure prediabetes. They try not to prescribe drugs to enhance the effect in order to avoid possible side effects.
If after 3 months from the start of treatment there is no effect, you will be prescribed Metformin. This drug is able to reduce the synthesis of glucose by the liver, which means it will help normalize fasting glycemia. In addition, it reduces insulin resistance, that is, after eating, sugar from the blood will quickly enter the cells. Another positive effect of Metformin is a decrease in the absorption of glucose from the intestine. Part of the glucose consumed will be excreted in the feces.
Drinking Metformin all his life in the hope of preventing diabetes is dangerous. When taking it, bloating, abdominal pain, allergic reactions can be observed. If for some reason the drug will not be excreted by the kidneys in time, the risk of lactic acidosis is high. Long-term use provokes a lack of vitamin B12, fraught with death of nerve cells and depression. Therefore, the appointment of Metformin is justified only in cases where treatment is impossible without medical support. Usually this is type 2 diabetes, not prediabetes.
Be sure to learn! Do you think lifelong administration of pills and insulin is the only way to keep sugar under control? Not true! You can verify this yourself by starting to use it. read more >>